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Draft genome sequence of Actinotignum schaalii DSM 15541T: Genetic insights into the lifestyle, cell fitness and virulence.

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The permanent draft genome sequence of Actinotignum schaalii DSM 15541T is presented. The annotated genome includes 2,130,987 bp, with 1777 protein-coding and 58 rRNA-coding genes. Genome sequence analysis revealed absence of genes encoding for: components of the PTS systems, enzymes of the TCA cycle, glyoxylate shunt and gluconeogensis. Genomic data revealed that A. schaalii is able to oxidize carbohydrates via glycolysis, the nonoxidative pentose phosphate and the Entner-Doudoroff pathways. Besides, the genome harbors genes encoding for enzymes involved in the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, acetate and ethanol, which are found to be the end products of carbohydrate fermentation. The genome contained the gene encoding Type I fatty acid synthase required for de novo FAS biosynthesis. The plsY and plsX genes encoding the acyltransferases necessary for phosphatidic acid biosynthesis were absent from the genome. The genome harbors genes encoding enzymes responsible for isoprene biosynthesis via the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. Genes encoding enzymes that confer resistance to reactive oxygen species (ROS) were identified. In addition, A. schaalii harbors genes that protect the genome against viral infections. These include restriction-modification (RM) systems, type II toxin-antitoxin (TA), CRISPR-Cas and abortive infection system. A. schaalii genome also encodes several virulence factors that contribute to adhesion and internalization of this pathogen such as the tad genes encoding proteins required for pili assembly, the nanI gene encoding exo-alpha-sialidase, genes encoding heat shock proteins and genes encoding type VII secretion system. These features are consistent with anaerobic and pathogenic lifestyles. Finally, resistance to ciprofloxacin occurs by mutation in chromosomal genes that encode the subunits of DNA-gyrase (GyrA) and topisomerase IV (ParC) enzymes, while resistant to metronidazole was due to the frxA gene, which encodes NADPH-flavin oxidoreductase.

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