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Exposure to Bovine Leukemia Virus Is Associated with Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study
- Author(s): Buehring, Gertrude Case
- Shen, Hua Min
- Jensen, Hanne M
- Jin, Diana L
- Hudes, Mark
- Block, Gladys
- et al.
Published Web Locationhttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0134304
Age, reproductive history, hormones, genetics, and lifestyle are known risk factors for breast cancer, but the agents that initiate cellular changes from normal to malignant are not understood. We previously detected bovine leukemia virus (BLV), a common oncogenic virus of cattle, in the breast epithelium of humans. The objective of this study was to determine whether the presence of BLV DNA in human mammary epithelium is associated with breast cancer.