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Open Access Publications from the University of California
Cover page of Accessibility, Affordability, and the Allocation of Housing Targets to California’s Local Governments

Accessibility, Affordability, and the Allocation of Housing Targets to California’s Local Governments


California’s Housing Element law establishes processes for determining regional housing needs and allocating these housing needs to cities and counties in the form of numerical targets. This study assesses whether the state's housing allocation process achieves the state’s goals of promoting housing development in areas accessible to transit, jobs, and socioeconomic opportunities. Our first analysis compares the mechanism that the Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG) uses to allocate housing units to local governments with two simpler alternatives. For all three allocation mechanisms, we assess whether the resulting allocations align with the goal of promoting housing development in areas with high social mobility and near transit and jobs. We find that SCAG’s allocation method may be unnecessarily complex, and that simpler allocation methods – which are less susceptible to technical difficulties and political wrangling – could achieve the state’s policy objectives with less administrative burden. Our second analysis, based on case studies of two Southern California cities, provides preliminary evidence that current enforcement mechanisms adopted in California may be insufficient to ensure that local governments accommodate their housing targets and promote housing development near transit and job centers.

Cover page of Resiliency Impacts of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in a Smart Grid

Resiliency Impacts of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in a Smart Grid


This project assesses the impact of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) on the resiliency of the electricity distribution system by: (1) Assessing the use of PEVs as a resiliency resource during grid outages (Mobility Services+), (2) Assessing and simulating the impact of PEVs on the distribution infrastructure during normal operations, and (3) Determining the local environmental impact of clustering PEVs. A previously developed model of a smart grid consisting of two distribution circuits and a distribution substation was modified to enable the use of PEVs in vehicle-to-home (V2H) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) configurations. Scenarios were simulated in which PEVs were used to serve critical loads in a home or community shelters, and a model was developed to assess the feasibility of using PEVs in grid restoration, which determined the inrush current of the substation transformer to determine the required power and energy for startup. The use of clustered PEVs and scattered PEVs in grid restoration was also considered. During normal operations, the stress on system components from high PEV demand resulted in accelerated aging and possible failure, thereby negatively impacting distribution infrastructure during normal grid operations. Smart charging is required to retain an acceptable level of resiliency. In contrast, during grid outages, this study demonstrated that PEVs can be used as an environmentally friendly resiliency resource to both serve critical loads and facilitate grid restoration with the qualification that implementation requires system upgrades including smart switches, upgraded inverters, energy management systems, and communication links.

Cover page of The Causes and Consequences of Local Growth Control: A Transportation Perspective

The Causes and Consequences of Local Growth Control: A Transportation Perspective


In California, there has been a growing concern about housing unaffordability and its negative consequences, but it has remained unclear how transportation is related to this issue. This report synthesizes the literature on the causes and consequences of local growth control which has been viewed as one of the most significant barriers to expanding housing supply and thus managing travel demand more effectively. Emphasis is on what insights can be gained from the literature and what further research is needed to better understand how transportation influences and is influenced by growth control actions.

Cover page of Assessment of the Employment Accessibility Benefits of Shared Autonomous Mobility Services

Assessment of the Employment Accessibility Benefits of Shared Autonomous Mobility Services


The goal of this study is to assess and quantify the potential employment accessibility benefits of Shared Autonomous Mobility Service (SAMS) commute modes across a large diverse metropolitan region considering heterogeneity in the working population. To meet this goal, this study employs a welfare-based (i.e. logsum-based) measure of accessibility, obtained via estimating a hierarchical work destination-commute mode choice model. The employment accessibility logsum measure incorporates the spatial distribution of worker residences and employment opportunities, the attributes of the available commute modes, and the characteristics of individual workers. This research further captures heterogeneity of workers using latent class analysis (LCA). The LCA model inputs include the socio-demographic characteristics of workers to subsequently account for different worker clusters valuing different types of employment opportunities differently. The accessibility analysis results indicate: (i) the accessibility benefit differences across latent classes are modest but young workers and low-income workers do see higher benefits than high- and middle-income workers; (ii) there are substantial spatial differences in accessibility benefits with workers living in lower density areas benefiting more than workers living in high-density areas; (iii) nearly all the accessibility benefits come from the SAMS-only mode as opposed to the SAMS+Transit mode; and (iv) the SAMS cost per mile assumption significantly impacts the magnitude of the overall employment accessibility benefits.

Cover page of Life Cycle Assessment of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Deploying Alternative Urban Bus Powertrain Technologies in the South Coast Air Basin

Life Cycle Assessment of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Deploying Alternative Urban Bus Powertrain Technologies in the South Coast Air Basin


To aid in addressing issues of air quality and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the South Coast Air Basin, local transit agencies are considering a shift to battery electric buses (BEBs) and hydrogen fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs). Each of these options vary in their overall effectiveness in reducing different emission types over their life cycle, associated life cycle costs, ability to meet operational needs of transit agencies, and life cycle environmental footprint. This project carried out a life cycle-based analysis and comparison of the GHG emissions, criteria pollutant emissions, and other environmental externalities associated with BEBs and FCEBs, taking into account their ability to meet operational constraints of the Orange County Transportation Authority. From an environmental footprint perspective, this study found the following. First, both FCEBs and long-range BEBs have comparable impacts for global warming potential and particulate matter formation but when the FCEBs were fueled using renewable hydrogen. Second, using electricity from the current California grid mix to drive electrolysis to produce hydrogen for FCEBs produced only marginal benefits compared to current natural-gas fueled vehicles due to the low supply chain efficiency of this pathway. Third, the mining of precious metals is a major contributor to environmental footprint categories for both BEBs and FCEBs. Fourth, both FCEVs and long-range BEBs provide significant reductions in environmental footprint compared to conventional diesel and natural gas buses. From a cost perspective, this study found the following. First, with current-day cost inputs, FCEBs and BEBs have comparable total cost of ownership, but both have slightly higher costs than diesel and natural gas buses. Second, FCEBs have an equivalent total cost of ownership to BEBs when the electricity rate for charging is $0.24/kWh. Higher values render FCEBs as the cheaper option and lower values render BEBs as the cheaper option. Second, the total cost of ownership of these technologies is highly sensitive to electricity costs, and the rapid evolution of the electricity system has strong implications for the economic comparison between BEBs and FCEBs. Overall, this study finds that while both FCEBs and BEBs provide life-cycle environmental benefits, further cost reductions in electricity rates and initial purchase costs are needed to achieve total cost of ownership parity with conventional bus powertrains. With the rapid evolution of the electricity system and falling costs for renewable electricity resources, these cost reductions may occur in the near future.

Cover page of Evaluating the Impacts of Start-Up and Clearance Behaviors in a Signalized Network: A Network Fundamental Diagram Approach

Evaluating the Impacts of Start-Up and Clearance Behaviors in a Signalized Network: A Network Fundamental Diagram Approach


Numerical simulations have shown that the network fundamental diagram (NFD) of a signalized network is significantly affected by the green ratio. An analytical approximation of the NFD has been derived from the link transmission model. However, the consistency between these approaches has not been established, and the impacts of other factors are still unrevealed. This research evalutes the impacts of start-up and clearance behaviors in a signalized network from a network fundamental diagram approach. Microscopic simulations based on Newell’s car-following model are used for testing the bounded acceleration (start-up) and aggressiveness (clearance) effects on the shape of the NFD in a signalized ring road. This new approach is shown to be consistent with theoretical results from the link transmission model, when the acceleration is unbounded and vehicles have the most aggressive clearance behaviors. This consistency validates both approaches; but the link transmission model cannot be easily extended to incorporate more realistic start-up or clearance behaviors. With the new approach, this project demonstrates that both bounded acceleration and different aggressiveness lead to distinct network capacities and fundamental diagrams. In particular, they lead to start-up and clearance lost times of several seconds; and these lost times are additive. Therefore, the important role that these behaviors play in the NFD shape is studied to reach a better understanding of how the NFD responds to changes. This will help with designing better start-up and clearance behaviors for connected and autonomous vehicles.

Cover page of Transportation Plans: Their Informational Content and Use Patterns in Southern California

Transportation Plans: Their Informational Content and Use Patterns in Southern California


While a large amount of effort has been devoted to making and updating local transportation plans, little is known about the informational contents of these plans and their use patterns.  This project attempted to identify key informational contents of Californian cities’ transportation plans and to investigate how the plan contents can be used by various stakeholders through (i) a plan content analysis of a sample of general plans (recently adopted by eight municipalities in Orange County, California) and (ii) a plan use survey and follow-up analysis of survey responses. All plans analyzed were found to convey a variety of information about their visions, goals, policies, and implementation strategies, but the plan content analysis revealed substantial variation in the way cities composed their general plans and integrated them with other plans/players. Compared to land use elements, circulation elements tended to focus more on their connections with other agencies (external consistency) than on internal consistency. The plan use survey yielded a low response rate which may indicate limited use of plans in the field. However, a majority of the survey responses were positive about the usefulness and usability of general plans. In particular, the survey participants reported that they found the plans comprehensive, visionary, and well-organized, while relatively lower scores were obtained for two evaluation criteria: ‘[the plan] clearly explains what actions will be taken and when’ and ‘[the plan] is relevant to my everyday life and/or work’.  Furthermore, some respondents reported that they used general plans not for their professional duties but for other (non-conventional) purposes, suggesting that plan contents could be used for a variety of decision-making processes.

Cover page of An Analysis of Travel Characteristics of Carless Households in California

An Analysis of Travel Characteristics of Carless Households in California


In spite of their substantial number in the U.S., our understanding of the travel behavior of households who do not own motor vehicles (labeled “carless” herein) is sketchy. The goal of this paper is to start filling this gap for California. We perform parametric and non-parametric tests to analyze trip data from the 2012 California Household Travel Survey (CHTS) after classifying carless households as voluntarily carless, involuntarily carless, or unclassifiable based on a CHTS question that inquires why a carless household does not own any motor vehicle. We find substantial differences between our different categories of carless households. Compared to their voluntarily carless peers, involuntarily carless households travel less frequently, their trips are longer and they take more time, partly because their environment is not as well adapted to their needs. They also walk/bike less, depend more on transit, and when they travel by motor vehicle, occupancy is typically higher. Their median travel time is longer, but remarkably, it is similar for voluntarily carless and motorized households. Overall, involuntarily carless households are less mobile, which may contribute to a more isolated lifestyle with a lower degree of well-being. Compared to motorized households, carless households rely a lot less on motor vehicles and much more on transit, walking, and biking. They also take less than half as many trips and their median trip distance is less than half as short. This study is a first step toward better understanding the transportation patterns of carless households.

New Methods for Monitoring Spatial Truck Travel Patterns in California Using Existing Detector Infrastructure


This study developed a methodology to accurately estimate network-wide truck flows by leveraging existing point detection infrastructure, namely inductive loop detectors. The tracking model identifies individual trucks at detector locations using advanced inductive signatures and matches vehicle pairs at detector locations, using an extended form of the Bayesian classification model to estimate matching and non-matching probabilities of the vehicle pairs  Several vehicle feature selection and weighting methods including Self Organizing Map and K-means clustering were applied to better identify individual vehicles from signature data.  It was shown that the proposed extensive feature processing enhanced vehicle identification performance even among vehicle pools sharing similar physical configurations. The developed model was tested along an approximately 5.5-mile freeway segment on I-5 and CA-78 in San Diego, California where only 67 percent of the total trucks were observed at both up- and down-stream detector sites. Results showed balanced performances in exactness and completeness of matching with 91 percent of correct outcomes for multi-unit trucks