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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Final Manuscript Preparation Guidelines for Publications Produced in the eScholarship Workflow

This document provides details on typesetting, and layout requirements and recommendations pertaining to final manuscript submission to an eScholarship journal.

The eScholarship submission management system has been designed to improve the scholarly publication process for authors. Among the many improvements we offer over traditional journals, the most significant is that we have dramatically shortened the period between initial submission and the final publication of a peer-reviewed article. Much of this time savings is due to innovative use of electronic publication. These innovations, however, require subtle, but important changes in the way authors need to prepare accepted manuscripts for electronic publication.

The L2 Journal does copyedit the manuscripts, and the eScholarship system will add the title page, pagination, and headers/footers.

Please refer to the style guide at:

Formatting Requirements

  • Do not include a title page or abstract. (Begin the document with the introduction; a title page, including the abstract, will be added to your paper by the eScholarship system.)
  • Do not include page numbers, headers, or footers. (The eScholarship system will add the appropriate header with page numbers).
  • Write your article in English.
  • Submit your manuscript, including tables, figures, appendices, etc., as a single file (Word,RTF, or PDF files are accepted).
  • Page size should be 8.5 x 11-inches.
  • All margins (left, right, top and bottom) should be 1.5 inches (3.8 cm), including your tables and figures.
  • Single space your text.
  • Use a single column layout with the left margin justified.
  • Font:
    1. 1. Main Body—12 pt. Times New Roman preferable.
    2. 2. Endnotes—10 pt. Times New Roman preferable.
  • Include a proper bibliography. Also see:
  • If figures are included, use high-resolution figures, preferably encoded as encapsulated PostScript (eps).
  • When possible, there should be no pages where more than a quarter of the page is empty space.
  • Use the following document structure (remember there is no title page):
    1. Introduction
    2. Subsequent sections including all tables, figures, and endnotes referenced in the text.
    3. Appendices (if any)
    4. References

Please note that acknowledgements should be entered in the submission form so that they may be incorporated into the title page produced for publication.

Additional Recommendations

Indenting, Line Spacing, and Justification

Indent all paragraphs except those following a section heading. An indent should be at least 2 em-spaces.

Do not insert extra space between paragraphs of text with the exception of long quotations, theorems, propositions, special remarks, etc. These should be set off from the surrounding text by additional space above and below.

Don't "widow" or "orphan" text (i.e., ending a page with the first line of a paragraph or beginning a page with the last line of a paragraph).

All text should be left-justified (i.e., flush with the left margin-except where indented).

Article Length

Because this journal publishes electronically, page limits are not as relevant as they are in the world of print publications. We are happy, therefore, to let authors take advantage of this greater "bandwidth" to include material that they might otherwise have to cut to get into a print journal. This said, authors should exercise some discretion with respect to length.


The following is a brief guide to fonts with respect to layout. We cannot accept Type3 fonts.

Colored text: Set the font color to black for the majority of the text. We encourage authors to take advantage of the ability to use color in the production of figures, maps, etc., however, you need to appreciate that this will cause some of your readers problems when they print the document on a black & white printer. For this reason, you are advised to avoid the use of colors in situations where their translation to black and white would render the material illegible or incomprehensible.

Please ensure that there are no colored mark-ups or comments in the final version, unless they are meant to be part of the final text. (You may need to "accept all changes in document" and "delete all comments" in track changes.)

Emphasized text: Whenever possible use italics to indicate text you wish to emphasize rather than underlining it. The use of color to emphasize text is discouraged.

Font faces: Except where special symbols are needed, use Times New Roman.

Font size: The main body of text should be set in 12pt. Avoid the use of fonts smaller than 6pt.

Foreign terms: Whenever possible, foreign terms should be set in italics rather than underlined.

Headings: Headings (e.g., start of sections) should be distinguished from the main body text by their fonts size. Use the same font face for all headings and indicate the hierarchy by font size and use bold. There should be space above and below headings. Heading A 16 pt., heading B 14 pt. and heading C pt. 12

Main text: The font for the main body of text must be black and, if at all possible, in Times New Roman.

Titles: Whenever possible, titles of books, movies, etc., should be set in italics rather than underlined.

Endnotes: Endnotes should appear at the end of the paper. Endnotes should be in 10 pt. Times New Roman, they should be single spaced. Endnote numbers or symbols in the text must follow, rather than precede, punctuation. Excessively long endnotes are probably better handled in an appendix. All endnotes should be left justified.

Tables and Figures: To the extent possible, tables and figures should appear in the document near where they are referenced in the text. Large tables or figures should be put on pages by themselves. Avoid the use of overly small type in tables. In no case should tables or figures be in a separate document or file. All tables and figures must fit within 1.5" margins on all sides (top, bottom, left and right) in both portrait and landscape view.


It is the author's obligation to provide complete references with the necessary information. After the last sentence of your submission, please insert a line break - not a page break - and begin your references on the same page, if possible. References should appear right after the end of the document, beginning on the last page if possible. Please refer to the APA style guide for your reference list details