No-till is often referred to as a climate change mitigation option, possibly with a stronger conviction, than as a practice to manage soil organic C (SOC) content. We conducted a global meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of no-till (NT) on SOC concentration (SOCc, g C kg−1 soil) and stock (SOCs, Mg C ha−1 land) across climate, soil texture, cropping systems, and no-till duration to appraise the priority-setting. Compared to conventional tillage, NT favoured a significant rise (ΔSOCc) of 38% in the 0–5 cm soil layer and a much lesser 6% increase in the 5–10 cm layer and no change beyond 10 cm. The temperate climate had nearly twice ΔSOCc in the 0–5 cm layer compared to other climates, while the tropical climate favoured sub-surface accumulation. Coarse- and medium-textured soils and the inclusion of legumes in crop rotation facilitated larger positive ΔSOCs under NT. The microbial biomass C was the most abundant C pool, with 61% and 23% increases under NT in 0–5 and 5–10 cm layers. A large ΔSOCc in aggregates also characterized the top 0–5 cm layer. The difference in SOCs was realized to a maximum 30 cm depth (5.4 Mg ha−1 or 14%) in favour of NT, although varying with the duration of its adoption. The contribution of NT in mitigating global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is meagre, although it can substantially offset emissions from agriculture (17–58%). The benefit of NT in improving SOC is primarily restricted to the surface layer, which is potentially exposed, and therefore an increase could be short-lived. Nevertheless, a short-term gain in SOC is likely to enhance soil quality and crop productivity. Thus, NT may be promoted as a sustainable agricultural management practice rather than emphasizing its role as a potential climate change mitigation option.
Alternative splicing is the process of producing variably spliced mRNAs by choosing distinct combinations of splice sites within a messenger RNA precursor. This splicing enables mRNA from a single gene to synthesize different proteins, which have different cellular properties and functions and yet arise from the same single gene. A family of splicing factors, Serine-arginine rich proteins, are needed to initiate the assembly and activation of the spliceosome. Serine and arginine rich splicing factor 1, part of the arginine/serine-rich splicing factor protein family, can either activate or inhibit the splicing of mRNAs, depending on the phosphorylation status of the protein and its interaction partners. Considering that serine and arginine rich splicing factor 1 is either an activator or an inhibitor, this protein has been studied widely to identify its various roles in different diseases. Research has found that serine and arginine rich splicing factor 1 is a key target for neuroprotection, showing its promising potential use in therapeutics for neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, serine and arginine rich splicing factor 1 might be used to regulate cancer development and autoimmune diseases. In this review, we highlight how serine and arginine rich splicing factor 1 has been studied concerning neuroprotection. In addition, we draw attention to how serine and arginine rich splicing factor 1 is being studied in cancer and immunological disorders, as well as how serine and arginine rich splicing factor 1 acts outside the central or peripheral nervous system.
As postdoctoral training has become a requirement in many STEMM fields the influence of postdoc hiring on STEMM labor force inclusion and diversity has increased, yet postdoc hiring processes have received only limited attention from researchers. Drawing on status theory and data for 769 postdoctoral recruitments, we systematically analyze the relationship between gender, race-ethnicity, and postdoctoral hiring. The findings show: (1) differences by gender and race-ethnicity in application rates, and in whether an applicant is seriously considered, interviewed, and offered the postdoc position; (2) hiring disparities correlate with between-group differences in applicants' network connections, referrer prestige, and academic human capital; (3) between-group differences in network connections have the greatest power to account for hiring disparities; and (4) hiring processes may differ by applicant gender or race-ethnicity, the female representation in the STEMM field and the race of the search committee chair. We discuss competing interpretations of the results and highlight directions for future research.
The 6TM family of K channels comprises the voltage-gated KV subfamilies, the EAG subfamily (which includes hERG channels), the Ca2+-activated Slo subfamily (actually with 7TM, termed BK) and the Ca2+-activated SK subfamily. These channels possess a pore-forming α subunit that comprise tetramers of identical subunits (homomeric) or of different subunits (heteromeric). Heteromeric channels can only be formed within subfamilies (e.g. Kv1.1 with Kv1.2; Kv7.2 with Kv7.3). The pharmacology largely reflects the subunit composition of the functional channel.
Established populations of Aedes aegypti, a mosquito vector of multiple major arthropod-borne viruses, were first found in three California (CA) cities in 2013. From 2013 to April 2021, Ae. aegypti thwarted almost all control efforts to stop its spread and expanded its range to 308 cities, including Exeter, in 22 counties in CA. Population genomic analyses have suggested that multiple genetically distinct Ae. aegypti populations were introduced into CA. However Ae. aegypti collected for the first time in 2014 in Exeter, appeared to be different from three major genetic clusters found elsewhere in CA. Due to intense control efforts by the Delta Vector Control District (DVCD), Ae. aegypti was thought to have been eliminated from Exeter in 2015. Unfortunately, it was recollected in 2018. It was not clear if the reemergence of Ae. aegypti in Exeter was derived from the bottlenecked remnants of the original 2014 Exeter population or from an independent invasion from a different population derived from surrounding areas. The goal of this work was to determine which of these scenarios occurred (recovery after bottleneck or reintroduction after elimination) and if elimination and reintroduction occurred to identify the origin of the invading population using a population genomic approach. Our results support the reintroduction after elimination hypothesis. The source of reintroduction, however, was unexpectedly from the southern CA cluster rather than from other two geographically closer central CA genetic clusters. We also conducted a knockdown resistance mutation profile, which showed Exeter 2014 had the lowest level of resistant alleles compared to the other populations, could have contributed towards DVCD’s ability to locally eliminate Ae. aegypti in 2014.
The fat body is considered the insect analog of vertebrate liver and fat tissue. In mosquitoes, a blood meal triggers a series of processes in the fat body that culminate in vitellogenesis, the process of yolk formation. Lipids are stored in the fat body in specialized organelles called lipid droplets that change in size depending on the nutritional and metabolic status of the insect. We surveyed lipid droplets in female Aedes aegypti fat body during a reproductive cycle using confocal microscopy and analyzed the dynamic changes in the fat body lipidome during this process using LC/MS. We found that lipid droplets underwent dynamic changes in volume after the mosquito took a blood meal. The lipid composition found in the fat body is quite complex with 117 distinct lipids that fall into 19 classes and sublcasses. Our results demonstrate that the lipid composition of the fat body is complex as most lipid classes underwent significant changes over the course of the vitellogenic cycle. This study lays the foundation for identifying unknown biochemical pathways active in the mosquito fat body, that are high-value targets for the development of novel mosquito control strategies.