Open Access Publications from the University of California

## False-Positive Cholesteatomas on Non-Echoplanar Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

(2020)

OBJECTIVES:To investigate false-positive findings on non-echoplanar (non-EPI) diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in patients under surveillance post-cholesteatoma surgery. STUDY DESIGN, SETTING, SUBJECTS, AND METHODS:A retrospective review was performed on patients diagnosed with cholesteatoma who underwent surgical resection and were then followed by serial non-EPI DWI using half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) sequence. All patients had at least two annual follow-up imaging studies. RESULTS:False-positive findings were identified in four patients. The size of the suspected lesions was 4 to 12 mm. Otoendoscopy was used during all primary cases and Argon laser was used in one case. In all cases, the entire cholesteatoma was removed, and no residual disease was detected at the end of the procedures. One patient underwent revision surgery but only cartilage graft was found in the area of concern. All patients had stable or resolved hyperintense areas in the subsequent HASTE sequences. CONCLUSION:False positive findings can occur with non-EPI DWI MRI and patients need to be counseled accordingly before revision surgery. Decreasing intensity and dimension of a suspected lesion and a positive finding in an area other than the location of the initial cholesteatoma may favor a false positive. If a false positive finding is suspected when the surgeon is confident of complete resection of the cholesteatoma, an MRI can be repeated in 6 to 12 months to assess changes in the dimension and intensity of the area of concern. Cartilage grafts may cause restricted diffusion on DWI sequences.

## Quantifying nuclear wide chromatin compaction by phasor analysis of histone Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in frequency domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) data.

(2020)

The nanometer spacing between nucleosomes throughout global chromatin organisation modulates local DNA template access, and through continuous dynamic rearrangements, regulates genome function [1]. However, given that nucleosome packaging occurs on a spatial scale well below the diffraction limit, real time observation of chromatin structure in live cells by optical microscopy has proved technically difficult, despite recent advances in live cell super resolution imaging [2]. One alternative solution to quantify chromatin structure in a living cell at the level of nucleosome proximity is to measure and spatially map Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorescently labelled histones - the core protein of a nucleosome [3]. In recent work we established that the phasor approach to fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a robust method for the detection of histone FRET which can quantify nuclear wide chromatin compaction in the presence of cellular autofluorescence [4]. Here we share FLIM data recording histone FRET in live cells co-expressing H2B-eGFP and H2B-mCherry. The data was acquired in the frequency domain [5] and processed by the phasor approach to lifetime analysis [6]. The data can be valuable to researchers interested in using the histone FRET assay since it highlights the impact of cellular autofluorescence and acceptor-donor ratio on quantifying chromatin compaction. The data is related to the research article "Phasor histone FLIM-FRET microscopy quantifies spatiotemporal rearrangement of chromatin architecture during the DNA damage response" [4].

## Securing state reconstruction under sensor and actuator attacks: Theory and design

(2020)

This paper discusses the problem of estimating the state of a linear time-invariant system when some of its sensors and actuators are compromised by an adversarial agent. In the model considered in this paper, the malicious agent attacks an input (output) by manipulating its value arbitrarily, i.e., we impose no constraints (statistical or otherwise) on how control commands (sensor measurements) are changed by the adversary. In the first part of this paper, we introduce the notion of sparse strong observability and we show that is a necessary and sufficient condition for correctly reconstructing the state despite the considered attacks. In the second half of this work, we propose an estimator to harness the complexity of this intrinsically combinatorial problem, by leveraging satisfiability modulo theory solving. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness and scalability of our estimator.

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## An Empirical Study on Android for Saving Non-shared Data on Public Storage

(2020)

With millions of apps that can be downloaded from official or third-party market, Android has become one of the most popular mobile platforms today. These apps help people in all kinds of ways and thus have access to lots of user's data that in general fall into three categories: sensitive data, data to be shared with other apps, and non-sensitive data not to be shared with others. For the first and second type of data, Android has provided very good storage models: an app's private sensitive data are saved to its private folder that can only be access by the app itself, and the data to be shared are saved to public storage (either the external SD card or the emulated SD card area on internal FLASH memory). But for the last type, i.e., an app's non-sensitive and non-shared data, there is a big problem in Android's current storage model which essentially encourages an app to save its non-sensitive data to shared public storage that can be accessed by other apps. At first glance, it seems no problem to do so, as those data are non-sensitive after all, but it implicitly assumes that app developers could correctly identify all sensitive data and prevent all possible information leakage from private-but-non-sensitive data. In this paper, we will demonstrate that this is an invalid assumption with a thorough survey on information leaks of those apps that had followed Android's recommended storage model for non-sensitive data. Our studies showed that highly sensitive information from billions of users can be easily hacked by exploiting the mentioned problematic storage model. Although our empirical studies are based on a limited set of apps, the identified problems are never isolated or accidental bugs of those apps being investigated. On the contrary, the problem is rooted from the vulnerable storage model recommended by Android. To mitigate the threat, we also propose a defense framework.

## Improved Constraints on Sterile Neutrino Mixing from Disappearance Searches in the MINOS, MINOS+, Daya Bay, and Bugey-3 Experiments

(2020)

Searches for electron antineutrino, muon neutrino, and muon antineutrino disappearance driven by sterile neutrino mixing have been carried out by the Daya Bay and MINOS+ collaborations. This Letter presents the combined results of these searches, along with exclusion results from the Bugey-3 reactor experiment, framed in a minimally extended four-neutrino scenario. Significantly improved constraints on the $\theta_{\mu e}$ mixing angle are derived that constitute the most stringent limits to date over five orders of magnitude in the sterile mass-squared splitting $\Delta m^2_{41}$, excluding the 90% C.L. sterile-neutrino parameter space allowed by the LSND and MiniBooNE observations at 90% CL$_s$ for $\Delta m^2_{41}<5\,$eV$^2$.Furthermore, the LSND and MiniBooNE 99% C.L. allowed regions are excluded at 99% CL$_s$ for $\Delta m^2_{41}$ $<$ 1.2 eV$^2$.