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Cover page of Do employment centers matter? Consequences for commuting distance in the Los Angeles region, 2002–2019

Do employment centers matter? Consequences for commuting distance in the Los Angeles region, 2002–2019

(2024)

The presence of employment centers provides the potential for reducing commuting distance. However, employment centers have distinct attributes, which may lead to varied impacts on commuting outcomes. We examine how proximity to employment centers can influence commuting distance with consideration of the heterogeneity of employment centers and workers. Specifically, we consider various attributes of employment centers related to location, persistency, job density, industry diversity, and size and analyze their impacts on the commuting patterns of low- and high-income workers using panel (2002-2019) data. Our analysis of the Los Angeles region shows that increasing proximity to the nearest employment center decreases commuting distance even after controlling for the job attributes located in the neighborhood of workers. The results further suggest that employment centers are not equal in terms of their impact on commute distance and that their impact is different for commuters from different income groups. Our findings contribute to the literature by deciphering the location and attributes of employment centers that may exert a greater impact on commuting patterns.

Cover page of Hispanics in the United States: Origins and Destinies

Hispanics in the United States: Origins and Destinies

(2019)

In 2019 the Hispanic population of the United States surpassed sixty million—or sixty-four million if the inhabitants of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are included. Only Mexico is larger among Spanish-speaking countries in the world. The rapid growth of the Hispanic population—which had been estimated at only four million in 1950—has been stunning. The US Census Bureau has projected that, given moderate levels of immigration and natural increase, Hispanics would grow by 2060 to an estimated 111 million people (about 28 percent of the US population), significantly exceeding the proportions of other ethnic or racial minorities. And while Hispanic Americans now account for one of every six persons in the United States, their impact—social, cultural, political, and economic—is much more profound because of their concentration in particular states and localities. Hispanics are at once a new and an old population, made up both of recently arrived newcomers and of old timers with deeper roots in American soil than any other ethnic groups except for the indigenous peoples of the continent. They comprise a population that can claim both a history and a territory in what is now the United States that precede the establishment of the nation. At the same time, it is a population that has emerged seemingly suddenly, its growth driven by immigration from the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America—above all from Mexico—and by high rates of natural increase. Today, a third of the Hispanic population is foreign- born, and another third consists of a growing second generation of US-born children of immigrants. And the label itself—“Hispanic”— is new, an instance of a pan-ethnic category that was created by official edict in the 1970s. The ethnic groups subsumed under this label were not “Hispanics” or “Latinos” in their countries of origin; rather, they only became so in the United States. But the Spanish roots of the United States antedate by a century the creation of an English colony in North America and have left an indelible if ignored Spanish imprint, especially across the southern rim of the United States, from the Atlantic to the Pacific. In US popular culture and in official narrative and ritual the American past has been portrayed as the story of the expansion of English America, suppressing if not silencing the Hispanic presence from the nation’s collective memory. But past is prologue, and no understanding of the Hispanic peoples in the United States today or of the category under which they are now grouped can ignore the historical and geographic contexts of their incorporation.

Cover page of Regulation as Retrospective Ethnography

Regulation as Retrospective Ethnography

(2016)

Often, we ask: how can regulation mitigate risk? What might happen if instead we ask: what does regulation tell us about socially situated action? This article poses a thought experiment along these lines. The emerging conversation about regulation and the risks of mobile financial services has been relatively silent on a ubiquitous set of things people do with cash and coin not limited to the strictly economic functions of these media. Adding mobile into the mix of people's existing; highly complex monetary practices has the potential to create new risks -- but also new opportunities for product design and smarter regulation. This paper describes the social uses of mobile phones and cash from different cultural contexts, including proscriptions regarding the disclosure of certain transactions, and multi-person sharing of money and mobiles. It then reflects on how we might understand regulation as an account of people's practices and experiences, an account we might set alongside other forms of data on use cases for mobile and money. It argues that the risks identified by the regulators, rather than hindering innovation or frightening off developers, might instead inspire user-oriented solutions for mobile money, and for mobile money as part of, not a replacement for, the user's world of diverse social currencies.

Cover page of Anthropology with Business: Plural Programs and Future Financial Worlds

Anthropology with Business: Plural Programs and Future Financial Worlds

(2016)

How can we imagine and perform an anthropological practice with business, that is, not from a distanced perspective but through a mutual infolding and engagement? How might such an arrangement then be exemplary for novel economic experiments of the kind anthropologists often describe? Reflecting on several years' of collaborations with each other, the authors recount their relationship as an experiment in novel engagements with economic things (money, corporations, universities, accounting principles, computers, etc.) in an industrial and university site. The paper puts forward a theoretical argument about exaptive and nonadaptive plurality that opens new pathways for alternative and sometimes quite conventional values. The context is a specific set of projects around money and payment. The intellectual background is the anthropology of finance and alternative economies.

Cover page of Shifting decision thresholds can undermine the probative value and legal utility of forensic pattern-matching evidence

Shifting decision thresholds can undermine the probative value and legal utility of forensic pattern-matching evidence

(2023)

Forensic pattern analysis requires examiners to compare the patterns of items such as fingerprints or tool marks to assess whether they have a common source. This article uses signal detection theory to model examiners' reported conclusions (e.g., identification, inconclusive, or exclusion), focusing on the connection between the examiner's decision threshold and the probative value of the forensic evidence. It uses a Bayesian network model to explore how shifts in decision thresholds may affect rates and ratios of true and false convictions in a hypothetical legal system. It demonstrates that small shifts in decision thresholds, which may arise from contextual bias, can dramatically affect the value of forensic pattern-matching evidence and its utility in the legal system.

Cover page of Socio-Spatial Health Disparities in Covid-19 Cases and Deaths in U.S. Skilled Nursing Facilities over 30 Months

Socio-Spatial Health Disparities in Covid-19 Cases and Deaths in U.S. Skilled Nursing Facilities over 30 Months

(2023)

Background

This study investigated whether socio-spatial factors surrounding U.S. skilled nursing facilities related to Covid-19 case counts among residents, staff, and facility personnel and deaths among residents.

Methods

With data on 12,403 U.S. skilled nursing facilities and Census data we estimated multilevel models to assess relationships between facility and surrounding area characteristics from June 2020 to September 2022 for cumulative resident and facility personnel case counts and resident deaths.

Results

Facilities with more Black or Latino residents experienced more cases (IRR = 1.005; 1.004) and deaths (IRR = 1.008) among residents during the first six months of the pandemic, but were no different thereafter. Facilities with more racial/ethnic heterogeneity and percent Black or Latino in the surrounding buffer experienced more Covid-19 cases and deaths in the first six months, but no such differences were observed in the subsequent 24 months. Facilities surrounded by higher percent Latino consistently experienced more cases among staff and facility personnel over the study period (IRR = 1.006; 1.001).

Conclusions

Findings indicated socio-spatial health disparities in cases among residents, staff, and facility personnel in the first six months of the pandemic, with some disparities fading thereafter. This pattern likely suggests the importance of the adoption and adherence to pandemic related safety measures in skilled nursing facilities nationwide.

Cover page of Who Leaves and Who Enters? Flow Measures of Neighborhood Change and Consequences for Neighborhood Crime

Who Leaves and Who Enters? Flow Measures of Neighborhood Change and Consequences for Neighborhood Crime

(2023)

Objectives: Longitudinal studies of the relationship between neighborhood change and changes in crime typically focus exclusively on the net level of change in key socio-demographic characteristics. Methods: We instead propose a demographic accounting strategy that captures the composition of neighborhood change: our measures capture which types of people are more likely to leave, stay, or enter the neighborhood. We use data for 3,325 tracts in the Southern California region over nearly two decades of 2000–2010 and 2010–2017 and construct flow measures based on race/ethnicity; the length of residence of owners and renters; the age structure. Results: These flow measures improve the predictive power of the models—implying important theoretical insights. Neighborhoods with higher percentages of middle-aged residents who recently entered the neighborhood exhibit larger increases in violent and property crime. The relative stability of those in the highest crime-prone ages (aged 15–29) is associated with the largest increases in violent and property crime. The greater loss of Black and Asian residents decreased crime while moderate outflows of Latinos increased crime. The mobility of long- and short-term renters was related to crime changes. Conclusions: This new technique will likely encourage further theoretical innovation for the neighborhoods and crime literature.