Skip to main content
eScholarship
Open Access Publications from the University of California

This series is automatically populated with publications deposited by UC Merced Department of Psychology researchers in accordance with the University of California’s open access policies. For more information see Open Access Policy Deposits and the UC Publication Management System.

Cover page of Developing a narrative communication intervention in the context of HPV vaccination.

Developing a narrative communication intervention in the context of HPV vaccination.

(2024)

OBJECTIVE: We outline the development of a narrative intervention guided by the Common-Sense Model of Self-Regulation (CSM) to promote Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in a diverse college population. METHODS: We adapted the Obesity-Related Behavioral Intervention Trials (ORBIT) model to guide the development, evaluation, and refinement of a CSM-guided narrative video. First, content experts developed a video script containing information on HPV, HPV vaccines, and HPV-related cancers. The script and video contents were evaluated and refined, in succession, utilizing the think-aloud method, open-ended questions, and a brief survey during one-on-one interviews with university students. RESULTS: Script and video content analyses led to significant revisions that enhanced quality, informativeness, and relevance to the participants. We highlight the critical issues that were revealed and revised in the iterative process. CONCLUSIONS: We developed and refined a CSM guided narrative video for diverse university students. This framework serves as a guide for developing health communication interventions for other populations and health behaviors. INNOVATION: This project is the first to apply the ORBIT framework to HPV vaccination and describe a process to develop, evaluate, and refine comparable CSM guided narrative interventions that are tailored to specific audiences.

Cover page of Testing the Effect of Cue Consistency on the Past Behavior-Habit-Physical Activity Relationship.

Testing the Effect of Cue Consistency on the Past Behavior-Habit-Physical Activity Relationship.

(2024)

Behavior performed in the presence of consistent cues is a core element for successful habit development, with the repeated presence of consistent cues facilitating the activation of automatic responses in future. Yet, little is known about the effects of different cue types on habit. Using a two-wave prospective PLS-SEM model with a sample of 68 undergraduate students, we assessed the mediating effects of habit on the past-behavior-to-physical-activity relationship, and how the mediating effects of habit were moderated by the consistent presence of different forms of cues. Habit mediated the effects of past behavior on physical activity, with a significantly stronger mediating effect of habit in those reporting undertaking physical activity at the same time of day, doing the same activity, and in the same mood. Consistent place, people, and part of routine did not moderate the effects of habit. The results provide formative evidence for a key assertion of the habit theory that consistent contextual and internal cues are a cornerstone of habitual development and action, but they also indicate the importance of examining different forms of cues and their impact on the formation and enaction of habits as some cues may be more relevant than others.

Cover page of Self-Determination Theory and Workplace Outcomes: A Conceptual Review and Future Research Directions.

Self-Determination Theory and Workplace Outcomes: A Conceptual Review and Future Research Directions.

(2024)

Adaptive workplace outcomes, such as employee work engagement, job performance, and satisfaction are positively associated with physical and psychological well-being, while maladaptive workplace outcomes, including work-related disengagement, dissatisfaction, stress, boredom, fatigue, and burnout, are negatively associated with well-being. Researchers have applied self-determination theory to identify key motivational correlates of these adaptive work-related determinants and outcomes. Research applying the theory has consistently indicated that autonomous forms of motivation and basic psychological need satisfaction are related to better employee performance, satisfaction, and engagement, while controlled forms of motivation and need frustration are associated with increased employee burnout and turnover. Forms of motivation have also been shown to mediate relations between need satisfaction and adaptive workplace outcomes. Despite support for these associations, a number of limitations in research in the field have been identified, which place limits on the inferences that can be drawn. Noted limitations encompass an over-reliance on single-occasion, correlational data; few fit-for-purpose tests of theory mechanisms; and a lack of consideration of key moderating variables. In the current conceptual review, we discuss these limitations in turn, with specific reference to examples from the extant research applying the theory in workplace contexts, and provide a series of recommendations we expect will set the agenda for future studies applying the theory in the workplace. Based on our review, we make three key recommendations: we stress the need for studies adopting experimental and longitudinal designs to permit better inferences (i.e., causal and directional), highlight the need for intervention research to explicitly test mediation effects to provide evidence for theory mechanisms, and outline some candidate moderators of theory effects, including workplace context, job type, pay structure, and causality orientations. We expect these recommendations to set an agenda for future research applying self-determination theory in workplace contexts with a view to filling the current evidence gaps and improving evidential quality.

Cover page of Associations among COVID-19 Family Stress, Family Functioning, and Child Health-Related Quality of Life through Lifestyle Behaviors in Children.

Associations among COVID-19 Family Stress, Family Functioning, and Child Health-Related Quality of Life through Lifestyle Behaviors in Children.

(2024)

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in lasting effects on children, necessitating a thorough understanding of its impact for effective recovery planning. This study investigated the associations among COVID-19 family stress, family functioning, childrens lifestyle behaviors (i.e., healthy food intake, unhealthy food intake, physical activity, and screen time), and their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Data from a 2022 survey of parents with children aged 5 to 12 (mean age of boys: 8.36, mean age of girls: 7.76) in the United States through the online Prolific platform were analyzed using path analysis and gender-based multi-group analysis. The results showed an inverse relationship between family stressors and functioning (β = -0.39, p < 0.05). COVID-19 family stress was negatively related to child physical HRQOL (β = -0.20, p < 0.05) but not psychosocial HRQOL. Family functioning showed a positive relation with child healthy food intake (β = 0.26, p < 0.05) and a negative relation with unhealthy diet consumption (β = -0.27, p < 0.05), while no significant associations were found with child physical activity and screen time. Family functioning was indirectly associated with both types of HRQOL through the childs eating patterns. These relationships were more pronounced for girls. The findings point to a complex interplay between family stress and functioning, dietary habits, and the HRQOL of children during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly concerning girls food intake and well-being.

Cover page of Associations of Broader Parental Factors with Childrens Happiness and Weight Status through Child Food Intake, Physical Activity, and Screen Time: A Longitudinal Modeling Analysis of South Korean Families.

Associations of Broader Parental Factors with Childrens Happiness and Weight Status through Child Food Intake, Physical Activity, and Screen Time: A Longitudinal Modeling Analysis of South Korean Families.

(2024)

This study investigated how broader parental factors including parental happiness, parental play engagement, and parenting stress are related to Korean childrens happiness and weight status across three years via indirect pathways through the childrens energy-related behaviors of healthy and unhealthy food intake, physical activity, and screen time. Data from 1551 Korean parent pairs and 7-year-old children in the Panel Study on Korean Children were analyzed. A path analysis and gender-based multi-group analysis were conducted. Maternal happiness was negatively related to child screen time. Maternal play engagement showed positive concurrent associations with child healthy food intake and physical activity and negative associations with screen time. Maternal parenting stress was negatively related to child healthy eating. There was one significant finding related to fathers role on childrens energy-related behaviors, happiness, and weight status: the positive association between parental happiness and boys unhealthy food intake. Child screen time was positively related to child weight status and negatively to child happiness at each age. Broader maternal parenting factors can serve as a protective factor for childhood happiness and weight status in 7-to-9-year-olds through being associated with a reduction in child screen time.

Cover page of Can the Cans: Determinants of Container Deposit Behavior before and after Introduction of a Container Refund Scheme.

Can the Cans: Determinants of Container Deposit Behavior before and after Introduction of a Container Refund Scheme.

(2024)

OBJECTIVE: Container deposit schemes are often hailed as a useful avenue to increase consumer recycling rates. Yet, there is little research investigating within-person changes in peoples beliefs and behavior following the implementation of these schemes, or tests of the mechanisms by which such change has occurred. METHODS: The current study fills this knowledge gap and assessed container recycling behavior and habits as well as the social cognition factors of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions in a sample of 90 Queenslanders before the implementation of the container deposit scheme and one and three months post-implementation. RESULTS: Analysis of variance indicated more frequent recycling behavior following the implementation of the scheme, as well as stronger habits, intentions, and perceived behavioral control. CONCLUSIONS: Such a concomitant change in behavior, beliefs, and habits provides support for behavior change theory, while also flagging potential targets for strategies that can be paired with container deposit schemes to enhance their efficacy and uptake.

Cover page of Predicting Adolescents Physical Activity Intentions: Testing an Integrated Social Cognition Model.

Predicting Adolescents Physical Activity Intentions: Testing an Integrated Social Cognition Model.

(2024)

BACKGROUND: Few adolescents meet guideline levels of physical activity associated with good health, highlighting the need for intervention. Interventions promoting adolescents physical activity should be guided by research applying behavioral theory to identify potentially modifiable correlates and associated processes. We applied an integrated social cognition model to identify theory-based constructs and processes that relate to physical activity intentions in a secondary analysis of two samples of Finnish adolescents using a correlational design. METHOD: Participants in the first sample (n = 455) completed self-report measures of social cognition constructs from theory of planned behavior, habit, self-discipline, and past and current physical activities. Participants in the second sample (n = 3878) completed identical measures plus measures of socio-structural and socio-environmental factors. Participants from the first sample also wore accelerometers for 1 week. Hypothesized model effects were tested using variance-based structural equation modeling in data from the first sample and subsequently confirmed in a pre-registered analysis of data from the second sample. RESULTS: Across both samples, habit, attitude, perceived behavioral control, and self-reported past behavior were associated with physical activity intention. Effects of self-reported past physical activity on intention were partially mediated by social cognition constructs. Effects of accelerometer-based physical activity were small by comparison. Effects of socio-structural and socio-environmental factors on intention in the second sample were partially mediated by the social cognition constructs. CONCLUSION: Results corroborate beliefs and habit as consistent correlates of adolescents physical activity intentions and provide preliminary evidence that social cognition constructs account for effects of socio-structural and socio-environmental factors on intentions.

Component-Specific Developmental Trajectories of ERP Indices of Cognitive Control in Early Childhood

(2023)

Early childhood is characterized by robust developmental changes in cognitive control. However, our understanding of intra-individual change in neural indices of cognitive control during this period remains limited. Here, we examined developmental changes in event-related potential (ERP) indices of cognitive control from preschool through first grade, in a large and diverse sample of children (N = 257). We recorded ERPs during a visual Go/No-Go task. N2 and P3b mean amplitudes were extracted from the observed waveforms (Go and No-Go) and the difference wave (No-Go minus Go, or ∆). Latent growth curve modeling revealed that while N2 Go and No-Go amplitudes showed no linear change, P3b Go and No-Go amplitudes displayed linear decreases in magnitude (became less positive) over time. ∆N2 amplitude demonstrated a linear increase in magnitude (became more negative) over time whereas ∆P3b amplitude was more positive in kindergarten compared to preschool. Younger age in preschool predicted greater rates of change in ∆N2 amplitude, and higher maternal education predicted larger initial P3b Go and No-Go amplitudes in preschool. Our findings suggest that observed waveforms and difference waves are not interchangeable for indexing neurodevelopment, and the developmental trajectories of different ERP indices of cognitive control are component-specific in early childhood.

Cover page of Reciprocal relations between past behavior, implicit beliefs, and habits: A cross-lagged panel design.

Reciprocal relations between past behavior, implicit beliefs, and habits: A cross-lagged panel design.

(2023)

The current study assessed cross-lagged relationships between binge drinking, implicit beliefs, and habit in undergraduate university students (N = 105). Students completed self-report survey and implicit measures in lab visits 3 months apart. A structural equation model revealed cross-lagged relations between habit and behavior, and some evidence for a reciprocal relationship between implicit beliefs and habit. Implicit beliefs were related to alcohol behavior across time, but no cross-lagged relationship was observed. Findings provide preliminary support for recent advances in habit theory, suggesting that implicit beliefs and habit may develop in tandem or even share common knowledge structures and schemas.

Cover page of Change Over 11-13 Year Periods in Quality of Life, Emotional Problems and Negative Stressful Life Events Among 13-17 Year Old Students.

Change Over 11-13 Year Periods in Quality of Life, Emotional Problems and Negative Stressful Life Events Among 13-17 Year Old Students.

(2023)

Studies investigating changes in the general population over time concerning adolescent self-reported Quality of life (QoL) are sparse. The aim of this study is to investigate stability and change over more than a decade in self-reported QoL, emotional problems, and negative stressful life-events among students. Three large cross-sectional samples (N = 1032, 4744 and 3826) of 13-17-year-old adolescents attending public school in the Norwegian County of Trøndelag provide data, one from 2017 to 2019 and two from 11 and 13 years earlier. We analyzed linear and binary linear regression adjusted for age. We found few indications of large changes in overall QoL. The exception was a 50% increase in reported emotional problems in both girls and boys. Girls also reported an increase of sexually uncomfortable/abusive acts from peers from 3.7 to 7.0%. The observed changes must be addressed through public health interventions targeting school as an important arena.