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Open Access Publications from the University of California
Cover page of (Un)intended consequences? The impact of the 2017 tax cuts and jobs act on shareholder wealth.

(Un)intended consequences? The impact of the 2017 tax cuts and jobs act on shareholder wealth.

(2020)

We study the stock market reactions to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA), the most significant structural U.S. tax reform in over 30 years. In line with the stated intent of TCJA proponents, we find that the Act benefited highly taxed firms. However, the Act hindered firms with international operations as well as firms with high interest expense and tax losses. Counter to claims that the TCJA would quickly spur economic growth, we find that financially constrained and high growth opportunity firms did not benefit. Rather, market participants anticipate that most of the TCJA's benefits will be passed on to shareholders via higher corporate payouts. We confirm these market expectations by documenting that firms did increase payouts via repurchases after the TCJA, but did not increase their corporate investments.

Cover page of A synthesis of virus-vector associations reveals important deficiencies in studies on host and vector manipulation by plant viruses.

A synthesis of virus-vector associations reveals important deficiencies in studies on host and vector manipulation by plant viruses.

(2020)

Plant viruses face many challenges in agricultural environments. Although crop fields appear to be abundant resources for these pathogens, it may be difficult for viruses to "escape" from crop environments prior to host senescence or harvesting. One way for viruses to increase the odds of persisting outside of agricultural fields across seasons is by evolving traits that increase transmission opportunities between crops and wild plant communities. There is accumulating evidence that some viruses can achieve this by manipulating crop plant phenotypes in ways that enhance transmission by vectors. Putative manipulations occur through alteration of plant cues (color, size, texture, foliar volatiles, in-leaf metabolites, defenses, and leaf cuticles) that mediate vector orientation, feeding, and dispersal behaviors. Virus effects on host phenotypes are not uniform but appear to exhibit convergence depending on virus traits underlying transmission, particularly the duration of probing and feeding required to acquire and inoculate distinct types of plant viruses. This shared congruence in manipulation strategies and mechanisms across divergent virus lineages suggests that such effects may be adaptive. To discern if this is the case, researchers must consider molecular and environmental constraints on virus evolution, including those imposed by insect vectors from organismal to landscape scales. In this review, we synthesize applied research on vector-borne virus transmission in laboratory and field settings to identify the main factors determining transmission opportunities for plant viruses, and thus, selection pressure to evolve manipulative traits. We then examine these outputs in the context of studies reporting putative instances of plant virus manipulation. Our synthesis reveals important disconnects between virus manipulation studies and actual selection pressures imposed by vectors in real-world contexts.

Cover page of High $p_T$ correlated tests of lepton universality in lepton(s) + jet(s) processes; an EFT analysis

High $p_T$ correlated tests of lepton universality in lepton(s) + jet(s) processes; an EFT analysis

(2020)

We suggest a new class of tests for searching for lepton flavor non-universality (LFNU) using ratio observables and based on correlations among the underlying LFNU new physics (NP) effects in several (seemingly independent) di-lepton and single lepton + jet(s) processes. This is demonstrated by studying the effects generated by LFNU 4-Fermi interactions involving 3rd generation quarks. We find that the sensitivity to the scale ($\Lambda$) of the LFNU 4-Fermi operators significantly improves when the correlations among the various di-lepton +jets and single-lepton + jets processes are used, reaching $\Lambda \sim {\cal O}(10)$ TeV at the HL-LHC.

Cover page of Single and binary protein electroultrafiltration using poly(vinyl-alcohol)-carbon nanotube (PVA-CNT) composite membranes

Single and binary protein electroultrafiltration using poly(vinyl-alcohol)-carbon nanotube (PVA-CNT) composite membranes

(2020)

AbstractElectrically conductive composite ultrafiltration membranes composed of carbon nanotubes have exhibited efficient fouling inhibition in wastewater treatment applications. In the current study, poly(vinyl-alcohol)-carbon nanotube membranes were applied to fed batch crossflow electroultrafiltration of dilute (0.1 g/L of each species) single and binary protein solutions of α-lactalbumin and hen egg-white lysozyme at pH 7.4, 4 mM ionic strength, and 1 psi. Electroultrafiltration using the poly(vinyl-alcohol)-carbon nanotube composite membranes yielded temporary enhancements in sieving for single protein filtration and in selectivity for binary protein separation compared to ultrafiltration using the unmodified PS-35 membranes. Assessment of membrane fouling based on permeate flux, zeta potential measurements, and scanning electron microscopy visualization of the conditioned membranes indicated significant resulting protein adsorption and aggregation which limited the duration of improvement during electroultrafiltration with an applied cathodic potential of −4.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). These results imply that appropriate optimization of electroultrafiltration using carbon nanotube-deposited polymeric membranes may provide substantial short-term improvements in binary protein separations.

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Cover page of The latency of peroxisomal catalase in terms of effectiveness factor for pancreatic and glioblastoma cancer cell lines in the presence of high concentrations of H2O2: Implications for the use of pharmacological ascorbate in cancer therapy.

The latency of peroxisomal catalase in terms of effectiveness factor for pancreatic and glioblastoma cancer cell lines in the presence of high concentrations of H2O2: Implications for the use of pharmacological ascorbate in cancer therapy.

(2020)

Previous research has identified variation in cancer cell line response to high levels of extracellular H2O2 (eH2O2) exposure. This directly contributes to our understanding cellular efficacy of pharmacological ascorbate (P-AscH-) therapy. Here we investigate the factors contributing to latency of peroxisomal catalase of a cell and the importance of latency in evaluating cell exposure to eH2O2. First, we develop a mathematical framework for the latency of catalase in terms of an effectiveness factor, ηeff, to describe the catalase activity in the presence of high levels of eH2O2. A simplified relationship emerges, [Formula: see text] when mprp/Dij≪1, where mp,rp, and [Formula: see text] are the experimentally determined peroxisome permeability, average peroxisome radius, and the pseudo first-order reaction rate constant, respectively. [Formula: see text] is the catalase concentration in the peroxisome and k2=1.7x107M-1s-1. Next, previously published parameters are used to determine the latency effect of the cell lines: normal pancreatic cells (H6c7), pancreatic cancer cells (MIA PaCa-2), and glioblastoma cells (LN-229, T98G, and U-87), all which vary in their susceptibility to exposure to high eH2O2. The results show that effectiveness is not significantly different except for the most susceptible, MIA PaCa-2 cell line, which is higher when compared to all other cell lines. This result is counterintuitive and further implies that latency, as a single parameter, is ineffective in forecasting cell line susceptibility to P-AscH- therapy equivalent eH2O. Thus, further research remains necessary to identify why cancer cells vary in susceptibility to P-AscH- therapy.

Cover page of The association between Extraversion and well-being is limited to one facet.

The association between Extraversion and well-being is limited to one facet.

(2020)

OBJECTIVE:Mõttus argues that effects should not be attributed to traits if they are driven by particular facets or items. We apply this reasoning to investigate the relationship between facets and items of Extraversion and well-being. METHOD:We analyzed five cross-sectional datasets (total N = 1,879), with facet- and item-level correlations and SEM. RESULTS:We found that the correlation between the energy level facet and well-being was solely responsible for the association between Extraversion and well-being. Neither sociability nor assertiveness were uniquely related to well-being when energy level was included as a predictor. Thus, the correlations between well-being and sociability and between well-being and assertiveness can be almost fully explained by these constructs' relationships with energy level. CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that the link between Extraversion and well-being should be attributed to the energy level facet rather than generalized to the trait level.