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Research works and presentations included here have been selected by the LAUC Research and Professional Development Committee of the UC San Diego Library.

A model for data ethics instruction for non-experts


The dramatic increase in use of technological and algorithmic-based solutions for research, economic, and policy decisions has led to a number of high-profile ethical and privacy violations in the last decade. Current disparities in academic curriculum for data and computational science result in significant gaps regarding ethics training in the next generation of data-intensive researchers. Libraries are often called to fill the curricular gaps in data science training for non-data science disciplines, including within the University of California (UC) system. We found that in addition to incomplete computational training, ethics training is almost completely absent in the standard course curricula. In this report, we highlight the experiences of library data services providers in attempting to meet the need for additional training, by designing and running two workshops: Ethical Considerations in Data (2021) and its sequel Data Ethics & Justice (2022). We discuss our interdisciplinary workshop approach and our efforts to highlight resources that can be used by non-experts to engage productively with these topics. Finally, we report a set of recommendations for librarians and data science instructors to more easily incorporate data ethics concepts into curricular instruction.

Cover page of Collective efficacy measures for women and girls in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

Collective efficacy measures for women and girls in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.


Prior research has shown collective efficacy to be a key determinant of women's well-being. However, much of the work around measuring this construct has been done in high-income geographies, with very little representation from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). To fill this gap, and guide future research in low resource settings, we aim to summarize best evidence measures of collective efficacy for women and girls from LMICs. Following PRISMA guidelines, we systematically searched five databases for English language peer-reviewed literature on measures of collective efficacy, published between 1 January 2009 and 25 August 2020. In addition, we sought expert input for relevant papers in this area. Research staff screened titles, abstracts, and full-text articles in a double-blind review. Inclusion criteria were: (i) original quantitative analysis, and (ii) sample limited to women/girls only (≥ 100), residing in LMICs. We identified 786 unique articles, 14 of which met inclusion criteria. Eligible studies captured a diversity of population groups, including pregnant women, recent mothers, adolescent girls, and female sex workers, from across national settings. Two broad constructs of collective efficacy were captured by the measures: (i) group dynamics, and (ii) collective action. All 14 studies included items on group dynamics in their measures, whereas seven studies included items on collective action. Four studies validated new measures of collective efficacy, and seven provided evidence supporting the relationship between collective efficacy and outcomes related to women's well-being. Overall, measures demonstrated good reliability and validity when tested, and those testing for associations or effects found a positive relationship of collective efficacy with women's health behaviors. The past decade has resulted in a number of new collective efficacy measures demonstrating good validity in terms of their associations with key health outcomes among women and girls from across LMIC settings, but there remains no standard measure in the field. Those that exist focus on group dynamics, but less often on collective action. A standard measure of collective efficacy inclusive of group dynamics and collective action can support better understanding of the value of women's collectives across national settings and populations.

Cover page of Pooled 3-Anatomic-Site Testing for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Pooled 3-Anatomic-Site Testing for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.



Pooled testing for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) may be a cost-saving solution to increase screening by simplifying testing procedures and reducing resource burdens. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the performance of pooled 3-anatomic-site testing (pharyngeal, rectal, and urogenital sites) for CT and NG in comparison with single-anatomic-site testing.


We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science to identify original evaluation studies of the performance of pooled testing for CT and NG infections and identified 14 studies for inclusion. Each study was systematically evaluated for bias. We conducted bivariate fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analyses using a full Bayesian method of the positive percent agreement and negative percent agreement.


The combined positive percent agreement for CT was 93.11% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.51%-94.55%), and the negative percent agreement was 99.44% (95% CI, 99.18%-99.65%). For NG, the combined positive percent agreement was 93.80% (95% CI, 90.26%-96.61%), and the negative percent agreement was 99.73% (95% CI, 99.30%-99.97%).


We found that pooled 3-anatomic-site tests performed similarly to single-anatomic-site tests for the detection of CT and NG. The pooled 3-anatomic-site tests have the added potential benefit of reduced cost and resource requirement, which could lead to improved testing access and screening uptake.

Cover page of ¡Presente!: Affirming Latinx voices within health sciences library scholarship

¡Presente!: Affirming Latinx voices within health sciences library scholarship


Increasing diverse author representation within medical librarianship scholarship among BIPOC information professionals is an important endeavor that requires closer examination. This commentary looks to examine the ways in which the profession can support Latinx librarians and library workers in fully participating within the scholarly pipeline by exploring our unique and authentic voices, structural barriers, hesitation and fears, Whiteness in the profession and knowledge production, bias in the peer review process, lack of resources and support, and finally, a call to action.

Cover page of Sodium azide poisoning: a narrative review.

Sodium azide poisoning: a narrative review.



Sodium azide is a highly toxic chemical. Its production has increased dramatically over the last 30 years due to its widespread use in vehicular airbags, and it is available for purchase online. Thus, accidental exposure to azide or use as a homicidal or suicidal agent could be on the rise, and secondary exposure to medical personnel can occur. No antidote exists for azide poisoning. We conducted a systematic review of azide poisoning to assess recent poisoning reports, exposure scenarios, clinical presentations, and treatment strategies.


We searched both medical and newspaper databases to review the literature between 01/01/2000 and 12/31/2020, pairing the controlled vocabulary and keyword terms "sodium azide" or "hydrazoic acid" with terms relating to exposures and outcomes, such as "ingestion," "inhalation," "exposure," "poisoning," and "death." We included all peer-reviewed papers and news articles describing human azide poisoning cases from English and non-English publications that could be identified using English keywords. Data abstracted included the number, age, and gender of cases, mode of exposure, exposure setting, azide dose and route of exposure, symptoms, outcome, and treatment modalities.


We identified 663 peer-reviewed papers and 303 newspaper articles. After removing duplicated and non-qualifying sources, 54 publications were reviewed describing 156 cases, yielding an average of 7.8 reported azide poisoning cases per year. This rate is three times higher than in a previous review covering the period of 1927 to 1999. Poisoning occurred most commonly in laboratory workers, during secondary exposure of medical personnel, or from a ripped airbag. Hypotension occurred commonly, in some cases requiring vasopressors and one patient received an intra-aortic ballon pump. Gastric lavage and/or activated charcoal were used for oral azide ingestion, and sodium nitrite, sodium thiosulfate, and/or hydroxocobalamin were used in severely poisoned patients.


Recent increases in azide poisoning reports may stem from greater commercial use and availability. Treatment of systemic poisoning may require aggressive hemodynamic support due to profound hypotension. Based on mechanistic considerations, hydroxocobalamin is a rational choice for treating azide poisoning.

Cover page of Systematic Review of Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Risk for Metachronous Advanced Neoplasia in Patients With Young-Onset Colorectal Adenoma

Systematic Review of Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Risk for Metachronous Advanced Neoplasia in Patients With Young-Onset Colorectal Adenoma


Background & aims

The incidence and mortality of early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) are increasing. Adenoma detection, removal, and subsequent endoscopic surveillance might modify risk of CRC diagnosed before age 50 years (early-onset CRC). We conducted a systematic review of young-onset adenoma (YOA) prevalence, associated risk factors, and rate of metachronous advanced neoplasia after YOA diagnosis.


We performed a systematic search of multiple electronic databases through February 12, 2019 and identified studies of individuals 18 to 49 years old that reported prevalence of adenoma, risk factors for adenoma, and/or risk for metachronous advanced neoplasia. Summary estimates were derived using random effects meta-analysis, when feasible.


The pooled overall prevalence of YOA was 9.0% (95% CI, 7.1%-11.4%), based on 24 studies comprising 23,142 individuals. On subgroup analysis, the pooled prevalence of YOA from autopsy studies was 3.9% (95% CI, 1.9%-7.6%), whereas the prevalence from colonoscopy studies was 10.7% (95% CI, 8.5%-13.5). Only advancing age was identified as a consistent risk factor for YOA, based on 4 studies comprising 78,880 individuals. Pooled rate of metachronous advanced neoplasia after baseline YOA diagnosis was 6.0% (95% CI, 4.1%-8.6%), based on 3 studies comprising 1493 individuals undergoing follow-up colonoscopy, with only 1 CRC case reported. Overall, few studies reported metachronous advanced neoplasia and no studies evaluated whether routine surveillance colonoscopy decreases risk of CRC.


In a systematic review, we estimated the prevalence of YOA to be 9% and to increase with age. Risk for metachronous advanced neoplasia after YOA diagnosis is estimated to be 6%. More research is needed to understand the prevalence, risk factors, and risk of CRC associated with YOA.

Cover page of The impact of a medical improv curriculum on wellbeing and professional development among pre-clinical medical students

The impact of a medical improv curriculum on wellbeing and professional development among pre-clinical medical students


Medical students experience rising rates of burnout throughout their training. Efforts have been made to not only mitigate its negative effects, but also prevent its development. Medical improv takes the basic ideas of improvisational theatre and applies them to clinical situations. Given improv's focus on self-awareness and reflection, in addition to its spontaneous nature, we hypothesized it had the potential to serve as a creative outlet, a way to prevent and/or mitigate the negative effects of stress, burnout, and fatigue, and provide a learning environment to develop skills necessary to succeed as a physician. University of California (UC) San Diego School of Medicine developed a medical improv elective for pre-clinical students and assessed its effects on student development and wellbeing. Students enrolled in the elective between Fall 2019 and Fall 2020 at UC San Diego School of Medicine were surveyed pre- and post- course completion using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Students noted significant improvement in domains related to proactivity in their professional career (3.15 to 4.00, p = 0.02), wellbeing (3.0 to 4.4, p < 0.001), engagement with their studies (3.85 to 4.52, p = 0.02), and communication (3.75 to 4.3, p = 0.04) after completion of the medical improv elective. We describe a pilot-study demonstrating the positive effects of improv on medical student wellbeing and professional development, laying the groundwork for both future study of improv on student wellness and its implementation in the pre-clinical curriculum.