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Research works and presentations included here have been selected by the LAUC Research and Professional Development Committee of the UC San Diego Library.

Cover page of Systematic Review of Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Risk for Metachronous Advanced Neoplasia in Patients With Young-Onset Colorectal Adenoma.

Systematic Review of Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Risk for Metachronous Advanced Neoplasia in Patients With Young-Onset Colorectal Adenoma.


Background & aims

The incidence and mortality of early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) are increasing. Adenoma detection, removal, and subsequent endoscopic surveillance might modify risk of CRC diagnosed before age 50 years (early-onset CRC). We conducted a systematic review of young-onset adenoma (YOA) prevalence, associated risk factors, and rate of metachronous advanced neoplasia after YOA diagnosis.


We performed a systematic search of multiple electronic databases through February 12, 2019 and identified studies of individuals 18 to 49 years old that reported prevalence of adenoma, risk factors for adenoma, and/or risk for metachronous advanced neoplasia. Summary estimates were derived using random effects meta-analysis, when feasible.


The pooled overall prevalence of YOA was 9.0% (95% CI, 7.1%-11.4%), based on 24 studies comprising 23,142 individuals. On subgroup analysis, the pooled prevalence of YOA from autopsy studies was 3.9% (95% CI, 1.9%-7.6%), whereas the prevalence from colonoscopy studies was 10.7% (95% CI, 8.5%-13.5). Only advancing age was identified as a consistent risk factor for YOA, based on 4 studies comprising 78,880 individuals. Pooled rate of metachronous advanced neoplasia after baseline YOA diagnosis was 6.0% (95% CI, 4.1%-8.6%), based on 3 studies comprising 1493 individuals undergoing follow-up colonoscopy, with only 1 CRC case reported. Overall, few studies reported metachronous advanced neoplasia and no studies evaluated whether routine surveillance colonoscopy decreases risk of CRC.


In a systematic review, we estimated the prevalence of YOA to be 9% and to increase with age. Risk for metachronous advanced neoplasia after YOA diagnosis is estimated to be 6%. More research is needed to understand the prevalence, risk factors, and risk of CRC associated with YOA.

Cover page of Exploring the (de)Colonial Gaze through Archival Analysis and Teaching

Exploring the (de)Colonial Gaze through Archival Analysis and Teaching


Who controls knowledge? How is indigenous knowledge shared, preserved, and maintained? Through an examination of the recently-digitized Papua New Guinea Patrol Reports in the Melanesian Archive at the UC San Diego Library, students dove into first-hand accounts from the post-World War II era of Papua New Guinea (PNG) to explore how remote indigenous communities were documented by kiaps or patrol officers, capturing information on village life such as census figures, languages spoken, health, food supply, tribal warfare and other local conditions.  The 5-week course called "Patrolling the Past to Explore the (de)colonial Gaze" was a CAT practicum (Culture, Art, and Technology) through Sixth College at UC San Diego.  In the course, students gained practical experience learning how to summarize the "aboutness" of texts and identify key subject terms of primary sources. On a theoretical level, students learned about the colonial history of Papua New Guinea, specifically thinking about how indigenous groups are represented by outsiders, who has access to knowledge, and methods of doing research in a decolonial way. They also focused on knowledge organization and forms of representation in order to consider how to create and curate digital data for audiences from all backgrounds. 

Descriptions of the course, the final syllabus, and blog posts written by the students were captured and shared on Knit, the UC San Diego Digital Commons open source teaching and community-building tool Commons In A Box (CBOX) at  By asking students to publicly share their reflections and class assignments via KNIT, students had to consider how they represented themselves and indigenous groups through their writing. The online platform alongside classroom meetings allowed for continual collaborations and interactions after class ended each day.   Using digital collections, especially historical archives, in the classroom allows for conversations about past representation, current access, and how archives can contribute to or hinder decolonial research.  It also allows for valuable collaborations between librarians, academics, and students.  

Co-taught by a Ph.D Candidate in Anthropology and a Librarian, the presentation will review the course objectives, share the teaching-and-learning and collaboration experience, as well as explain lessons learned through using a digital collection in the classroom and using CBOX as a tool for class engagement.  Through this presentation, we suggest that online platforms allow for collaboration, which when combined with archival analysis opens up the access to knowledge and learning often only available to those within academia.

Cover page of Designing Outcomes for Multifaceted Organizational Planning and Assessment: A Case Study of the Logic Model Framework for the UC San Diego Library Organizational Renewal

Designing Outcomes for Multifaceted Organizational Planning and Assessment: A Case Study of the Logic Model Framework for the UC San Diego Library Organizational Renewal


Purpose: In 2019, the UC San Diego Library engaged in an organizational renewal activity that included parallel efforts to renew our strategic priorities, recruit new senior leadership, revise leadership portfolios, and evaluate the impact of previous organizational changes for adjustments. To engage in these initiatives in a cohesive way, we needed a framework to connect these planning activities to the intended service outcomes of our organization. This paper describes our use of the logic model planning and assessment framework to define service outcomes – that align Library priorities to campus goals, professional trends, and long-term impact areas – and to set up an assessment for future organizational development.

Approach: Logic models are visual planning and assessment diagrams that depict the connections between an organization’s work and the intended results. They are like concept maps that depict an if-then relationship between resources, activities, outputs, and outcomes/impact, i.e., if we have the resources, then we expect to conduct the activities; if we conduct the activities, then we expect to produce the outputs; if the outputs are delivered, then we may realize specific outcomes/impact. Outcomes may be divided by different types of change in our users – specifically in their learning, actions, and conditions. Additionally, outcomes may be differentiated by time range as short, intermediate, or long term. The logic model framework has been used by governmental, philanthropic, academic, and library organizations. It may be especially useful for aligning the current activities of the organization towards new or revitalized long-term service outcomes and developing assessment methods to inform this change.

Findings: We describe how the logic model approach contributed to a unified framework for coordinating strategic, leadership, and organizational planning during our multifaceted organizational renewal. We focus on three beneficial features of the logic model: a framework centered on clear outcomes around user change, connecting work activities to organizational impact, and gathering holistic perspectives in a manageable and structured manner. These features contributed to strategic planning by framing priorities in a resonant way to users and external stakeholders, providing a roadmap for implementation and assessment, and facilitating shared understanding and decision-making. In terms of leadership planning, the logic model approach was instrumental to aligning conversations around mission and strategic priorities, ensuring clear paths between leadership and organizational structures, and providing methods to align leadership with organizational work and operations. Finally, logic models contributed to organizational planning by ensuring that organizational structures support service priorities and users’ needs, prioritizing work based on outcomes and resources, and facilitating assessment at an operational and organizational level.

Value: The value of logic models for multifaceted organizational planning falls along four themes: (1) operational- and activity-centered strategic planning, (2) mission- and outcome- aligned organizational planning, (3) user impact-focused communication, and (4) contextual and additive assessment to coordinate planning. The underlying common element to these positives is the clearly articulated organizational outcome framed around user change and broader campus goals. Such outcomes lay the groundwork for evaluation, continuous improvement, and future organizational development. They also serve as indicators of progress and help identify course corrections in a changing environment. And by anchoring outcomes to long-term campus goals, we have the latitude to adjust our organization to suit changing needs and trends. This paper may help the reader engage in multifaceted Library planning through the design of organizational outcomes for planning and assessment.

Conference paper at the ARL Library Assessment Conference (November 18, 2020)

Cover page of Developing a Sustainable Online Video Instructional Program through Lean Production Values and Assessment

Developing a Sustainable Online Video Instructional Program through Lean Production Values and Assessment


BACKGROUND: Online videos can support large-scale library instruction and reference consultations while reducing time and access barriers for users. However, the development of online videos entails a time investment, a learning curve, and an ongoing maintenance effort that can be more significant compared to other instructional modes. This project aimed to streamline video production and maintenance in order to establish a sustainable online instructional program. In this poster, we describe the lean production values and assessment techniques that facilitated efficient online video development.


DESCRIPTION: Our video production is grounded in three principles. First, create short videos; each covering a single learning objective. Second, use modular building blocks of video lectures, demos, and transcripts, which will facilitate future video revisions. Finally, rely on low-cost, self-sufficient production. This involves a production workflow that embraces low-cost technology to lower collaboration barriers. For video maintenance, we used assessment-driven methods. We rely on a periodic review cycle and survey feedback to identify necessary changes. Examining audience retention statistics help us identify high-impact areas for focused effort. Additionally, we conducted a qualitative 2x2 matrix analysis (for skill level and subject scope) to identify gaps and trends in our instructional videos. This identified strategies for future video development.


CONCLUSION: Through reflective practice, we observed several positive outcomes. First, short modular videos are easier to tailor instruction to different clinical audiences and to introduce self-instruction in the reference workflow. Second, our lean production flow enabled staff to work independently and efficiently such that an instructional program was developed in a relatively short amount of time. Finally, our assessment identified precise strategies for future development. In particular, to focus on high-impact learning, to customize to learner preferences, to collaborate with other disciplinary librarians for advanced information literacy skills training, and to re-use existing video content.

Poster presentation at the Medical Library Association 2020 vConference (August 10-14). 

Cover page of Information Literacy Combined Rubric: Mapping the ACRL Framework to the AAC&U VALUE Rubric (Final Report of the Information Literacy Rubric Task Force)

Information Literacy Combined Rubric: Mapping the ACRL Framework to the AAC&U VALUE Rubric (Final Report of the Information Literacy Rubric Task Force)


The University of California, San Diego is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC) Senior College and University Commission (WSCUC), and was undergoing review to reaffirm accreditation during the library’s rubric project. Since the university’s previous review in 2010, WSCUC has introduced information literacy as a core competency to be included in “an integrated course of study of sufficient breadth and depth to prepare…[students] for work, citizenship, and life-long learning” (WSCUC, 2013). Additionally, “for each core competency, the institution may set a specific level of performance expected at graduation and gather evidence of the achievement of that level of performance (which can be based on sampling) using the assessment methods of its choice” (WSCUC, 2013). Information literacy instruction and assessment has long been at the core of academic library services, so it made sense for the library to partner with campus to help set the standard of performance expected of undergraduate students for information literacy.


Within the same 2010-2020 timeframe, the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) replaced their long-standing Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education (2000) with the Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education (2016). However, the WSCUC’s 2013 handbook mentions the use of Association of Colleges & Universities (AAC&U) VALUE rubrics, and the Information Literacy VALUE Rubric (n.d.) is based on the now-outdated ACRL Standards. Therefore, UC San Diego librarians needed to find a way to align the new accreditation core competencies with their new professional standards. To do so, a library task force combined the two documents by mapping the ACRL Framework onto the existing structure of the AAC&U rubric. However, there were several aspects of the ACRL Framework that did not directly relate to the AAC&U rubric, so the task force made two significant additions: 1) when the knowledge practices or dispositions described in the ACRL Framework were more basic or foundational than the “Benchmark” (i.e., scoring a 1) category on the rubric, the task force included the additional column of “Foundation” (i.e., scoring a 0) to indicate that without this fundamental knowledge, a learner would have difficulty reaching the “Benchmark,” and 2) when the knowledge practices or dispositions described in the ACRL Framework did not fit into the pre-existing rubric rows (i.e., labelled with the ACRL Standards), the task force found that adding the row “Understand How Information is Organized” would encapsulate the remaining, uncategorized knowledge practices and dispositions of the ACRL Framework.


The UC San Diego Library’s ultimate goal for this combined rubric is to provide the foundation for creating an in-house online database that instruction librarians can use to create appropriate information literacy learning outcomes for their workshops or courses, paving the way for designing deep learning and creating appropriate formative and summative assessments.

Cover page of Building Users’ Search Skills for Systematic Reviews: Development of Self-Directed Learning Through Qualitative Synthesis of Guidelines

Building Users’ Search Skills for Systematic Reviews: Development of Self-Directed Learning Through Qualitative Synthesis of Guidelines


Conference paper presentation at the Medical Library Association 2020 vConference (August 10-14)

BACKGROUND: When conducting a systematic review, the search for evidence can be a challenging process for novice searchers. There are complicated procedures with multiple sources of guidelines, and the prevailing instruction targets intermediate and higher skill levels. To address these challenges, this project created self-instruction materials framed along an explicit search workflow. This instruction was developed through a qualitative content analysis of four major systematic review guidelines. The result is a comprehensive yet straightforward self-instruction guide for advanced literature search skills. This paper reports the development methodology and observations from the guide’s use in reference consultations. 

DESCRIPTION: Instructional development began with the qualitative content analysis of search guidelines by four organizations (Cochrane, NAM, AHRQ, and CRD). Over 300 recommended search objectives and tasks were extracted, with many duplications across the guidelines. This analysis defined the phases of a comprehensive search workflow and synthesized recommendations into search tasks and stepwise procedures. The workflow has five phases addressing search strategy design, search conduct, results management, document retrieval, and search reporting. Additionally, a directory of 150+ recommended databases was compiled. The resulting self-instruction guide is assigned as preparatory reading before a reference consultation, serves as a discussion framework during the session, and functions as a reference tool afterward. The guide was evaluated through librarian peer review and user feedback. 

CONCLUSIONS: The self-instruction guide supports the UC San Diego Library’s systematic review service. It is situated in the consultation process as pre-session reading, discussion framework, and post-reference support. Anecdotal evidence indicates the guide may prompt a user-driven consultation and may facilitate instruction on advanced literature searching. Because the guide synthesizes multiple guidelines, it has the potential to standardize library services for systematic reviews. Future evaluation would assess the guide’s pedagogical usability. The guide is publicly available for re-use and customization.

Cover page of Unlocking the Value of the Monograph: 6400 Book Pairs Speak

Unlocking the Value of the Monograph: 6400 Book Pairs Speak


Delivered as part of the session "Unlocking the Value of the Monograph" at Electronic Resources and Libraries (ER&L) 15th Annual Conference, Austin, Texas, March 9, 2020.

Scholarly monographs are undergoing a digital transformation that brings new value to both libraries and researchers. This presentation approaches the session theme with a single institution’s view of the digital environment unlocking the value of the scholarly monograph. It builds upon and expands a preliminary appreciation from ER&L 2019 that compared local download activity across ebooks recently acquired via two evidence-based programs at UC San Diego with the lifetime circulation histories of our matching legacy print holdings. This new foray is powered by a 10 times larger study pool of every JSTOR Books title purchased since the inception of our local contract in early 2015, which now includes DDA, EBA, and Pick-and-Mix channels.

Slides 8 & 9 were not presented at ER&L 2020 owing to session time constraints. All script notes and slide transitions are preserved in the supplemental file.

  • 1 supplemental file
Cover page of Web archiving: Policy and practice

Web archiving: Policy and practice


The UC San Diego Library has been collecting and providing access to archived web content since 2007. Initial collections were created on an ad hoc basis, with no highlevel plan to identify websites and content of interest, and there was little documentation of how early collection decisions were made. As time passed, the library’s web archiving efforts increased in scale, and outgrew this informal approach. Efforts were made to standardise web archiving processes and policies via collection request forms and standardised metadata, eventually culminating in the creation of a web archive collection development policy, and collection and quality control workflows and tracking. This article outlines the process of creating these tools, including establishing institutional needs and concerns, evaluating the wider landscape of web archiving policies and norms, and considering sustainable use of available resources. The article also discusses future areas of work to ensure that web content of research and historical interest is captured in full, preserved responsibly, and made accessible even when the original websites have changed or disappeared.