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Research works and presentations included here have been selected by the LAUC Research and Professional Development Committee of the UC San Diego Library.

Cover page of The impact of a medical improv curriculum on wellbeing and professional development among pre-clinical medical students.

The impact of a medical improv curriculum on wellbeing and professional development among pre-clinical medical students.


Medical students experience rising rates of burnout throughout their training. Efforts have been made to not only mitigate its negative effects, but also prevent its development. Medical improv takes the basic ideas of improvisational theatre and applies them to clinical situations. Given improv's focus on self-awareness and reflection, in addition to its spontaneous nature, we hypothesized it had the potential to serve as a creative outlet, a way to prevent and/or mitigate the negative effects of stress, burnout, and fatigue, and provide a learning environment to develop skills necessary to succeed as a physician. University of California (UC) San Diego School of Medicine developed a medical improv elective for pre-clinical students and assessed its effects on student development and wellbeing. Students enrolled in the elective between Fall 2019 and Fall 2020 at UC San Diego School of Medicine were surveyed pre- and post- course completion using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Students noted significant improvement in domains related to proactivity in their professional career (3.15 to 4.00, p = 0.02), wellbeing (3.0 to 4.4, p < 0.001), engagement with their studies (3.85 to 4.52, p = 0.02), and communication (3.75 to 4.3, p = 0.04) after completion of the medical improv elective. We describe a pilot-study demonstrating the positive effects of improv on medical student wellbeing and professional development, laying the groundwork for both future study of improv on student wellness and its implementation in the pre-clinical curriculum.

Cover page of ¡Presente!: Affirming Latinx voices within health sciences library scholarship.

¡Presente!: Affirming Latinx voices within health sciences library scholarship.


Increasing diverse author representation within medical librarianship scholarship among BIPOC information professionals is an important endeavor that requires closer examination. This commentary looks to examine the ways in which the profession can support Latinx librarians and library workers in fully participating within the scholarly pipeline by exploring our unique and authentic voices, structural barriers, hesitation and fears, Whiteness in the profession and knowledge production, bias in the peer review process, lack of resources and support, and finally, a call to action.

Cover page of Sodium azide poisoning: a narrative review.

Sodium azide poisoning: a narrative review.



Sodium azide is a highly toxic chemical. Its production has increased dramatically over the last 30 years due to its widespread use in vehicular airbags, and it is available for purchase online. Thus, accidental exposure to azide or use as a homicidal or suicidal agent could be on the rise, and secondary exposure to medical personnel can occur. No antidote exists for azide poisoning. We conducted a systematic review of azide poisoning to assess recent poisoning reports, exposure scenarios, clinical presentations, and treatment strategies.


We searched both medical and newspaper databases to review the literature between 01/01/2000 and 12/31/2020, pairing the controlled vocabulary and keyword terms "sodium azide" or "hydrazoic acid" with terms relating to exposures and outcomes, such as "ingestion," "inhalation," "exposure," "poisoning," and "death." We included all peer-reviewed papers and news articles describing human azide poisoning cases from English and non-English publications that could be identified using English keywords. Data abstracted included the number, age, and gender of cases, mode of exposure, exposure setting, azide dose and route of exposure, symptoms, outcome, and treatment modalities.


We identified 663 peer-reviewed papers and 303 newspaper articles. After removing duplicated and non-qualifying sources, 54 publications were reviewed describing 156 cases, yielding an average of 7.8 reported azide poisoning cases per year. This rate is three times higher than in a previous review covering the period of 1927 to 1999. Poisoning occurred most commonly in laboratory workers, during secondary exposure of medical personnel, or from a ripped airbag. Hypotension occurred commonly, in some cases requiring vasopressors and one patient received an intra-aortic ballon pump. Gastric lavage and/or activated charcoal were used for oral azide ingestion, and sodium nitrite, sodium thiosulfate, and/or hydroxocobalamin were used in severely poisoned patients.


Recent increases in azide poisoning reports may stem from greater commercial use and availability. Treatment of systemic poisoning may require aggressive hemodynamic support due to profound hypotension. Based on mechanistic considerations, hydroxocobalamin is a rational choice for treating azide poisoning.

Cover page of Systematic Review of Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Risk for Metachronous Advanced Neoplasia in Patients With Young-Onset Colorectal Adenoma.

Systematic Review of Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Risk for Metachronous Advanced Neoplasia in Patients With Young-Onset Colorectal Adenoma.


Background & aims

The incidence and mortality of early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) are increasing. Adenoma detection, removal, and subsequent endoscopic surveillance might modify risk of CRC diagnosed before age 50 years (early-onset CRC). We conducted a systematic review of young-onset adenoma (YOA) prevalence, associated risk factors, and rate of metachronous advanced neoplasia after YOA diagnosis.


We performed a systematic search of multiple electronic databases through February 12, 2019 and identified studies of individuals 18 to 49 years old that reported prevalence of adenoma, risk factors for adenoma, and/or risk for metachronous advanced neoplasia. Summary estimates were derived using random effects meta-analysis, when feasible.


The pooled overall prevalence of YOA was 9.0% (95% CI, 7.1%-11.4%), based on 24 studies comprising 23,142 individuals. On subgroup analysis, the pooled prevalence of YOA from autopsy studies was 3.9% (95% CI, 1.9%-7.6%), whereas the prevalence from colonoscopy studies was 10.7% (95% CI, 8.5%-13.5). Only advancing age was identified as a consistent risk factor for YOA, based on 4 studies comprising 78,880 individuals. Pooled rate of metachronous advanced neoplasia after baseline YOA diagnosis was 6.0% (95% CI, 4.1%-8.6%), based on 3 studies comprising 1493 individuals undergoing follow-up colonoscopy, with only 1 CRC case reported. Overall, few studies reported metachronous advanced neoplasia and no studies evaluated whether routine surveillance colonoscopy decreases risk of CRC.


In a systematic review, we estimated the prevalence of YOA to be 9% and to increase with age. Risk for metachronous advanced neoplasia after YOA diagnosis is estimated to be 6%. More research is needed to understand the prevalence, risk factors, and risk of CRC associated with YOA.

Cover page of Designing Outcomes for Multifaceted Organizational Planning and Assessment: A Case Study of the Logic Model Framework for the UC San Diego Library Organizational Renewal

Designing Outcomes for Multifaceted Organizational Planning and Assessment: A Case Study of the Logic Model Framework for the UC San Diego Library Organizational Renewal


Purpose: In 2019, the UC San Diego Library engaged in an organizational renewal activity that included parallel efforts to renew our strategic priorities, recruit new senior leadership, revise leadership portfolios, and evaluate the impact of previous organizational changes for adjustments. To engage in these initiatives in a cohesive way, we needed a framework to connect these planning activities to the intended service outcomes of our organization. This paper describes our use of the logic model planning and assessment framework to define service outcomes – that align Library priorities to campus goals, professional trends, and long-term impact areas – and to set up an assessment for future organizational development.

Approach: Logic models are visual planning and assessment diagrams that depict the connections between an organization’s work and the intended results. They are like concept maps that depict an if-then relationship between resources, activities, outputs, and outcomes/impact, i.e., if we have the resources, then we expect to conduct the activities; if we conduct the activities, then we expect to produce the outputs; if the outputs are delivered, then we may realize specific outcomes/impact. Outcomes may be divided by different types of change in our users – specifically in their learning, actions, and conditions. Additionally, outcomes may be differentiated by time range as short, intermediate, or long term. The logic model framework has been used by governmental, philanthropic, academic, and library organizations. It may be especially useful for aligning the current activities of the organization towards new or revitalized long-term service outcomes and developing assessment methods to inform this change.

Findings: We describe how the logic model approach contributed to a unified framework for coordinating strategic, leadership, and organizational planning during our multifaceted organizational renewal. We focus on three beneficial features of the logic model: a framework centered on clear outcomes around user change, connecting work activities to organizational impact, and gathering holistic perspectives in a manageable and structured manner. These features contributed to strategic planning by framing priorities in a resonant way to users and external stakeholders, providing a roadmap for implementation and assessment, and facilitating shared understanding and decision-making. In terms of leadership planning, the logic model approach was instrumental to aligning conversations around mission and strategic priorities, ensuring clear paths between leadership and organizational structures, and providing methods to align leadership with organizational work and operations. Finally, logic models contributed to organizational planning by ensuring that organizational structures support service priorities and users’ needs, prioritizing work based on outcomes and resources, and facilitating assessment at an operational and organizational level.

Value: The value of logic models for multifaceted organizational planning falls along four themes: (1) operational- and activity-centered strategic planning, (2) mission- and outcome- aligned organizational planning, (3) user impact-focused communication, and (4) contextual and additive assessment to coordinate planning. The underlying common element to these positives is the clearly articulated organizational outcome framed around user change and broader campus goals. Such outcomes lay the groundwork for evaluation, continuous improvement, and future organizational development. They also serve as indicators of progress and help identify course corrections in a changing environment. And by anchoring outcomes to long-term campus goals, we have the latitude to adjust our organization to suit changing needs and trends. This paper may help the reader engage in multifaceted Library planning through the design of organizational outcomes for planning and assessment.

Conference paper at the ARL Library Assessment Conference (November 18, 2020)

Cover page of Information Literacy Combined Rubric: Mapping the ACRL Framework to the AAC&amp;U VALUE Rubric (Final Report of the Information Literacy Rubric Task Force)

Information Literacy Combined Rubric: Mapping the ACRL Framework to the AAC&U VALUE Rubric (Final Report of the Information Literacy Rubric Task Force)


The University of California, San Diego is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC) Senior College and University Commission (WSCUC), and was undergoing review to reaffirm accreditation during the library’s rubric project. Since the university’s previous review in 2010, WSCUC has introduced information literacy as a core competency to be included in “an integrated course of study of sufficient breadth and depth to prepare…[students] for work, citizenship, and life-long learning” (WSCUC, 2013). Additionally, “for each core competency, the institution may set a specific level of performance expected at graduation and gather evidence of the achievement of that level of performance (which can be based on sampling) using the assessment methods of its choice” (WSCUC, 2013). Information literacy instruction and assessment has long been at the core of academic library services, so it made sense for the library to partner with campus to help set the standard of performance expected of undergraduate students for information literacy.


Within the same 2010-2020 timeframe, the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) replaced their long-standing Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education (2000) with the Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education (2016). However, the WSCUC’s 2013 handbook mentions the use of Association of Colleges & Universities (AAC&U) VALUE rubrics, and the Information Literacy VALUE Rubric (n.d.) is based on the now-outdated ACRL Standards. Therefore, UC San Diego librarians needed to find a way to align the new accreditation core competencies with their new professional standards. To do so, a library task force combined the two documents by mapping the ACRL Framework onto the existing structure of the AAC&U rubric. However, there were several aspects of the ACRL Framework that did not directly relate to the AAC&U rubric, so the task force made two significant additions: 1) when the knowledge practices or dispositions described in the ACRL Framework were more basic or foundational than the “Benchmark” (i.e., scoring a 1) category on the rubric, the task force included the additional column of “Foundation” (i.e., scoring a 0) to indicate that without this fundamental knowledge, a learner would have difficulty reaching the “Benchmark,” and 2) when the knowledge practices or dispositions described in the ACRL Framework did not fit into the pre-existing rubric rows (i.e., labelled with the ACRL Standards), the task force found that adding the row “Understand How Information is Organized” would encapsulate the remaining, uncategorized knowledge practices and dispositions of the ACRL Framework.


The UC San Diego Library’s ultimate goal for this combined rubric is to provide the foundation for creating an in-house online database that instruction librarians can use to create appropriate information literacy learning outcomes for their workshops or courses, paving the way for designing deep learning and creating appropriate formative and summative assessments.

Cover page of Web archiving: Policy and practice

Web archiving: Policy and practice


The UC San Diego Library has been collecting and providing access to archived web content since 2007. Initial collections were created on an ad hoc basis, with no highlevel plan to identify websites and content of interest, and there was little documentation of how early collection decisions were made. As time passed, the library’s web archiving efforts increased in scale, and outgrew this informal approach. Efforts were made to standardise web archiving processes and policies via collection request forms and standardised metadata, eventually culminating in the creation of a web archive collection development policy, and collection and quality control workflows and tracking. This article outlines the process of creating these tools, including establishing institutional needs and concerns, evaluating the wider landscape of web archiving policies and norms, and considering sustainable use of available resources. The article also discusses future areas of work to ensure that web content of research and historical interest is captured in full, preserved responsibly, and made accessible even when the original websites have changed or disappeared.

Cover page of Supporting Library Operational Needs with In-House 3D Printing

Supporting Library Operational Needs with In-House 3D Printing


Intended to support others in doing so, the paper details several scenarios in which in-house 3D scanning and printing produced unique or valuable outcomes with facilities-related issues, as well the process that led to successful solutions.

Cover page of Food for Thought: Leveraging Library Services to Address Food Insecurity

Food for Thought: Leveraging Library Services to Address Food Insecurity


In June 2018, the University of California (UC), San Diego Library held an inaugural Food for Fine$ drive, collecting non-perishable food items benefiting the year-round campus food pantry in exchange for fine forgiveness. The drive has continued twice annually, in December and June, intentionally timed to coincide with students moving out of their dorms and residences at the end of the school year. Steadily gaining popularity among the student community, each instance evolves in response to observations and feedback.Complementing the Library’s myriad de-stress and wellness activities, this campaign supports students’ basic needs and raises awareness about often hidden food scarcity issues on campus. Providing an incentive for library users to give back to fellow students sets an example for collaboration and generosity, and encourages students to consider alternatives to food waste, both in the immediate and long terms.





Mailed outreach promoting colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with a stool blood test kit may increase participation, but magnitude and consistency of benefit of this intervention strategy is uncertain.


Conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing mailed outreach offering stool tests to usual care, clinic-based screening offers on CRC screening uptake in the United States.


We performed a systematic literature search of 5 databases for RCTs of mailed outreach January 1980 through June 2017. Primary outcome was screening completion, summarized using random-effects meta-analysis as pooled differences in proportion completing screening and relative risk of achieving screening compared to control. Subgroup analyses by test type offered--fecal immunochemical test (FIT) or guaiac fecal occult blood test (gFOBT)--, presence of telephone reminders, and presence of predominant underserved/minority population within study were performed. Quality of evidence was evaluated using the GRADE framework.


7 RCTs which enrolled 12,501 subjects were included (n=5,703 assigned mailed outreach and n=6,798 usual care). Mailed outreach resulted in a 28% absolute (95%CI: 25–30%; I2=47%), and a 2.8-fold relative (RR 2.65, 95%CI: 2.03–3.45; I2=92%) increase in screening completion compared to usual care, with a number needed to invite of 3.6. Similar outcomes were observed across subgroups. Overall body of evidence was moderate quality.


Mailed outreach offering a gFOBT or FIT is associated with a large and consistent increase in CRC screening completion and should be considered for more widespread implementation for improving screening rates nationwide.

DOI: 10.1007/s10620-019-05587-6

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