The nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) has been successful in extending its range throughout the southeastern states. It occupies such a diverse range of habitats that its effects on its surroundings depend largely on where it is located. It offers benefits from its burrowing and eating patterns by creating dens for furbearers and destroying large quantities of injurious insects and their larva. Those same activities in urban and suburban areas are now being recognized as a source of considerable nuisance and moderate damage. Damage is most severe from July through early November. They have been recognized in connection with several diseases of public health importance. Control is possible in urban areas by use of live traps of various types. Rural control is possible through a wider variety of methods. The armadillo's position in American culture and social life offers a challenge for future management which should not be ignored.