Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a critical complication after surgery. Although pregnancy is a known risk factor of VTE, available data on the risk of postoperative VTE are scarce. Using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database between 2006 and 2012, we matched 2,582 pregnant women to 103,640 nonpregnant women based on age, race, body mass index, and modified Rogers score. Pregnant women, compared with matched nonpregnant women, experienced higher incidence of VTE (0.5% vs 0.3%; odds ratio 1.93, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 3.37, p = 0.02). Pregnant women also showed higher risk of pneumonia, ventilator dependence ≥48 hours, bleeding, and sepsis than did the counterparts. In conclusion, pregnancy was associated with higher risk of VTE after surgery as well as other postoperative complications. The absolute risk difference was small, and careful evaluation against the potential risk and benefit should be given when surgical treatment is considered among pregnant women.