IntroductionEndoscopic tools have provided versatile examination and treatment for kidney stone procedures. Despite endourologists researching urinary stone disease using endoscopes to collect tissue, this tissue collection method is limited. Endoscopically removed tissues are small in size, restricting the types of genome-based examination possible. We investigated a new method of renal papilla biopsy and RNA extraction to establish a genomic research methodology for kidney stone disease.
Patients and methodsWe conducted a prospective multi-institutional study and collected renal papilla specimens from consecutive percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteroscopy (URS) cases performed for removal of upper urinary tract stones. Renal papilla tissue was extracted using ureteroscopic biopsy forceps after stone removal. RNA was extracted using two different extraction kits, and their quantity and quality were examined. Additionally, the impact of biopsy on surgical complications was compared between cases performed with and without biopsy by matched case-control analysis adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, bilaterality, and stone burden.
ResultsA total of 90 biopsies from 49 patients were performed, and the median duration between specimen collection and RNA extraction was 61 days. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed BIGopsy® forceps usage significantly increased the total yield (p = 0.004) and quality (p = 0.001 for A260/280, p = 0.004 for A260/A230) of extracted RNA. Extraction using the RNeasy Micro Kit® also improved A260/A230, whereas reduced RNA integrity number of extracted RNA by univariate and multivariate analyses (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively). Moreover, matched case-control study demonstrated that endoscopic renal papilla biopsy caused no significant surgical complications, including bleeding, decreased stone clearance and hematocrit, and renal dysfunction. Biopsies during URS imparted an average of 20 minutes of procedure time over nonbiopsy cases.
ConclusionsWe demonstrate a safe methodology for optimal RNA extraction of renal papilla tissue. This technique will accelerate advanced genomic studies for kidney stone formers by facilitating larger tissue yields.