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Open Access Publications from the University of California

UC San Francisco Previously Published Works

Cover page of Recent cessation attempts and receipt of cessation services among a diverse primary care population – A mixed methods study

Recent cessation attempts and receipt of cessation services among a diverse primary care population – A mixed methods study

(2019)

© 2019 The Authors Smoking rates are high among low-income populations who seek care in safety-net clinics. While most safety-net clinics screen for cigarette smoking, there are substantial disparities in the delivery of smoking cessation counseling in these systems. We conducted a mixed method study between July 2016 and April 2017 to examine receipt of smoking cessation counseling and estimate recent cessation attempts among primary care patients in four safety-net clinics in San Francisco. We used the electronic health record (EHR) to examine receipt of cessation services and estimate cessation attempts, defined as transition from current to former smoking status during the 9-month study period. We conducted interviews with 10 staff and 16 patients to assess barriers to and facilitators of providing cessation services. Of the 3301 smokers identified via EHR, the majority (95.6%) received some type of cessation counseling during at least one clinical encounter, and 17.6% made a recent cessation attempt. Recent smoking cessation attempts and receipt of smoking cessation services differed significantly by clinic after adjusting for demographic factors. We identified patient and staff-level pre-disposing, reinforcing and enabling factors to increase delivery of cessation care, including increasing access to cessation medications and higher intensity counseling using a team-based approach. The EHR presents a useful tool to monitor patients' recent cessation attempts and access to cessation care. Combining EHR data with qualitative methods can help guide and streamline interventions to improve quality of cessation care and promote quit attempts among patients in safety-net settings.

Cover page of A Review of Tobacco Policies on University of California Campuses

A Review of Tobacco Policies on University of California Campuses

(2019)

Background and Purpose: College and university tobacco control programs have historically neglected cessation. In 2012, the University of California Office of the President (UCOP) released a Smoke and Tobacco Free policy that became effective in January 2014. The policy provided for a comprehensive education and outreach campaign that included resources and referrals for cessation. We sought to determine whether all University of California (UC) campuses met UCOP standards. Methods: We reviewed the Smoke & Tobacco Free policies created by UCOP and posted at ten UC campuses, searched the tobacco free websites of each campus for cessation resources, and contacted tobacco-free task forces. Results: We found that all UC campuses met the UCOP standard by addressing tobacco cessation in their campus policies. The provision of cessation services and resources was limited and varied substantially by campus, and no campuses reported collecting data on the use of cessation programs. Conclusion: Consistent with concerns that college and university tobacco policies neglect cessation, UC campuses mentioned tobacco cessation resources and programs but did not provide consistent services. These campuses also did not report on the use of tobacco cessation resources, making it difficult to assess the effects of offering different types of cessation programs.

Cover page of Coping with the loss of a library patron: a call to medical libraries

Coping with the loss of a library patron: a call to medical libraries

(2019)

Our small hospital library staff was shocked and saddened to learn of the death of one of our regular patrons, someone who embodied the societal struggles that our safety net patients face daily. After searching the library literature and seeking guidance from colleagues in medical libraries, we discovered that there is a lack of literature and communal discussion about this topic in our field. By sharing our experience with the process of grieving and celebrating our patron’s life, we hope to begin this conversation within our profession and encourage other library workers to share similar stories and experiences.

Cover page of Commitment, interpersonal stigma, and mental health in romantic relationships between transgender women and cisgender male partners.

Commitment, interpersonal stigma, and mental health in romantic relationships between transgender women and cisgender male partners.

(2019)

The goals of this study were to: (a) examine associations between interpersonal stigma and psychological distress among a sample of transgender women and their cisgender male partners; and (b) identify whether commitment moderates the association between interpersonal stigma and psychological distress. To address these aims, 191 couples consisting of transgender women and their cisgender male partners completed a one-time survey. Actor-partner interdependence models (APIM) were fit to examine stigma, commitment, and their interaction on psychological distress. More frequent experiences of interpersonal stigma were associated with elevated psychological distress for both partners. For transgender women, higher commitment was associated with lower psychological distress. There was a significant interaction effect such that the association between interpersonal stigma and psychological distress was attenuated by greater commitment for transgender women, but not for their cisgender male partners. Findings provide preliminary support for associations between interpersonal stigma and mental health of both partners, and identify commitment as a potential stress buffer for transgender women.

Measuring impostor phenomenon among health sciences librarians.

(2019)

Impostor phenomenon, also known as impostor syndrome, is the inability to internalize accomplishments while experiencing the fear of being exposed as a fraud. Previous work has examined impostor phenomenon among academic college and research librarians, but health sciences librarians, who are often asked to be experts in medical subject areas with minimal training or education in these areas, have not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to measure impostor phenomenon among health sciences librarians.

A survey of 2,125 eligible Medical Library Association (MLA) members was taken from October to December 2017. The online survey featuring the Harvey Impostor Phenomenon scale, a validated measure of impostor phenomenon, was administered, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine relationships between impostor phenomenon scores and demographic variables.

A total of 703 participants completed the survey (33% response rate), and 14.5% of participants scored ≥42 on the Harvey scale, indicating possible impostor feelings. Gender, race, and library setting showed no associations, but having an educational background in the health sciences was associated with lower impostor scores. Age and years of experience were inversely correlated with impostor phenomenon, with younger and newer librarians demonstrating higher scores.

One out of seven health sciences librarians in this study experienced impostor phenomenon, similar to previous findings for academic librarians. Librarians, managers, and MLA can work to recognize and address this issue by raising awareness, using early prevention methods, and supporting librarians who are younger and/or new to the profession.

Cover page of Clinical onset of atopic eczema: Results from two nationally representative British birth cohorts followed through mid-life.

Clinical onset of atopic eczema: Results from two nationally representative British birth cohorts followed through mid-life.

(2019)

BACKGROUND:Atopic eczema onset is described primarily in early childhood; the frequency and characteristics of adult-onset disease remain controversial. OBJECTIVE:To determine the proportion of individuals who report atopic eczema symptoms between birth and mid adulthood, and to examine demographic, immunologic, and genetic factors associated with period of symptom onset. METHODS:We conducted a longitudinal study using data from two nationally representative community-based birth cohorts from the United Kingdom: the British Cohort Studies 1958 and 1970. Individuals were followed from birth through age 42-50. The primary outcome was the age period of self-reported atopic eczema symptom onset based on repeated measures of self-reported atopic eczema at each survey wave. RESULTS:The annual period prevalence of atopic eczema ranged from 5-15% in two cohorts of over 17,000 participants each followed from birth through mid-age. There was no clear trend in prevalence by age, and among adults reporting active atopic eczema during a given year, only 38% had symptom onset reported in childhood. When compared with individuals whose eczema started in childhood, those with adult-onset disease were more likely to be women, from Scotland or Northern England, of lower childhood socio-economic group, smokers in adulthood, and less likely to have a history of asthma. In a sub-analysis using data from the 1958 cohort only, genetic mutations previously associated with atopic eczema, including filaggrin null mutations, and allergen-specific IgE were more common among those with childhood-onset disease. CONCLUSION:Rates of self-reported atopic eczema remain high after childhood, and adult-onset atopic eczema has different risk factor associations than childhood-onset eczema.