INTRODUCTION:Dialysis centers must provide transplant education to patients but often do not address the risks and benefits of living and deceased donor transplant. RESEARCH QUESTIONS:In a group randomized controlled trial of 20 dialysis centers and 253 patients, we assessed whether the Explore Transplant education program increased patients' readiness to pursue transplant, transplant knowledge, informed transplant decision-making, discussions about transplant with potential living donors, pursuit and receipt of living or deceased donor transplant, and whether these effects varied by race. METHODS:Patients at participating dialysis centers were randomized to receive either (1) a 4-module Explore Transplant education program, including videos, printed materials, and transplant educator discussions or (2) standard-of-care transplant education provided by dialysis centers. The trial had 3 phases: (1) pre- and postsurveying and dialysis center education (2007-2008), (2) follow-up to determine whether patients restarted or began transplant evaluation (2008-2010), and (3) assessment of participants' receipt of a renal transplant (2012-2015). RESULTS:Compared to patients in standard-of-care dialysis centers, patients who received the intervention were more likely to increase in their stage of readiness for living donor transplantation (odds ratio: 2.50; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-5.66), had greater increases in their transplant knowledge ( P < .001), and were more likely to call to restart/begin transplant evaluation (38% vs 24%, P = .006). When analyses were stratified by race, black patients were more likely to take several steps toward transplant in comparison to whites. DISCUSSION:The Explore Transplant helps dialysis patients make informed decisions and increases their pursuit of transplant, particularly among black patients.