BACKGROUND:Subject motion is known to produce spurious covariance among time-series in functional connectivity that has been reported to induce distance-dependent spurious correlations. PURPOSE:To present a feasibility study for applying the extended Kalman filter (EKF) framework for high temporal resolution motion correction of resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) series using each simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) echo planar imaging (EPI) shot as its own navigator. STUDY TYPE:Prospective feasibility study. POPULATION/SUBJECTS:Three human volunteers. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE:3T GE DISCOVERY MR750 scanner using a 32-channel head coil. Simultaneous multi-slice rs-fMRI sequence with repetition time (TR)/echo time (TE) = 800/30 ms, and SMS factor 6. ASSESSMENT:Motion estimates were computed using two techniques: a conventional rigid-body volume-wise registration; and a high-temporal resolution motion estimation rigid-body approach. The reference image was resampled using the estimates obtained from both approaches and the difference between these predicted volumes and the original moving series was summarized using the normalized mean squared error (NMSE). STATISTICAL TESTS:Direct comparison of NMSE values. RESULTS:High-temporal motion estimation was always superior to volume-wise motion estimation for the sample presented. For staged continuous rotations, the NMSE using high-temporal resolution motion estimates ranged between [0.130, 0.150] for the first volunteer (in-plane rotations), between [0.060, 0.068] for the second volunteer (in-plane rotations), and between [0.063, 0.080] for the third volunteer (through-plane rotations). These values went up to [0.384, 0.464]; [0.136, 0.179]; and [0.080, 0.096], respectively, when using volume-wise motion estimates. DATA CONCLUSION:Accurate high-temporal rigid-body motion estimates can be obtained for rs-fMRI taking advantage of simultaneous multi-slice EPI sub-TR shots. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018.