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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Anderson School of Management

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This series is automatically populated with publications deposited by UCLA Anderson Graduate School of Management researchers in accordance with the University of California’s open access policies. For more information see Open Access Policy Deposits and the UC Publication Management System.

Cover page of Field testing the transferability of behavioural science knowledge on promoting vaccinations.

Field testing the transferability of behavioural science knowledge on promoting vaccinations.


As behavioural science is increasingly adopted by organizations, there is a growing need to assess the robustness and transferability of empirical findings. Here, we investigate the transferability of insights from various sources of behavioural science knowledge to field settings. Across three pre-registered randomized controlled trials (RCTs, N = 314,824) involving a critical policy domain-COVID-19 booster uptake-we field tested text-based interventions that either increased vaccinations in prior field work (RCT1, NCT05586204), elevated vaccination intentions in an online study (RCT2, NCT05586178) or were favoured by scientists and non-experts (RCT3, NCT05586165). Despite repeated exposure to COVID-19 vaccination messaging in our population, reminders and psychological ownership language increased booster uptake, replicating prior findings. However, strategies deemed effective by prediction or intention surveys, such as encouraging the bundling of COVID-19 boosters and flu shots or addressing misconceptions, yielded no detectable benefits over simple reminders. These findings underscore the importance of testing interventions transferability to real-world settings.

Cover page of People Endorse Harsher Policies in Principle Than in Practice: Asymmetric Beliefs About Which Errors to Prevent Versus Fix.

People Endorse Harsher Policies in Principle Than in Practice: Asymmetric Beliefs About Which Errors to Prevent Versus Fix.


Countless policies are crafted with the intention of punishing all who do wrong or rewarding only those who do right. However, this requires accommodating certain mistakes: some who do not deserve to be punished might be, and some who deserve to be rewarded might not be. Six preregistered experiments (N = 3,484 U.S. adults) reveal that people are more willing to accept this trade-off in principle, before errors occur, than in practice, after errors occur. The result is an asymmetry such that for punishments, people believe it is more important to prevent false negatives (e.g., criminals escaping justice) than to fix them, and more important to fix false positives (e.g., wrongful convictions) than to prevent them. For rewards, people believe it is more important to prevent false positives (e.g., welfare fraud) than to fix them and more important to fix false negatives (e.g., improperly denied benefits) than to prevent them.

Cover page of Supply‐side inducements and resource redeployment in multiunit firms

Supply‐side inducements and resource redeployment in multiunit firms


Abstract: Research Summary: We examine to what extent and when multiunit firms internally redeploy managers between units. While theory has emphasized how changes in demand conditions affect redeployment, we argue that optimal internal resource allocation involves consideration of both demand and each unit's resource supply. We formalize this argument, showing how redeployment arises from “supply‐side inducements”—return advantages in new over existing resource uses resulting from changes in resource supply. Empirical tests using manager deaths as an exogenous, supply‐side shock to firms' resource stocks support our arguments, showing that firms frequently redeploy resources away from better‐endowed and toward negatively affected units. Incorporating supply‐side inducements into redeployment theory implies additional value‐creation opportunities from redeployment and carries novel predictions for the direction of intra‐firm resource flows. Managerial Summary: Firms continuously decide how to allocate valuable resources—such as their most productive workers, unique inputs, or machinery—among different units. We argue that to optimally allocate such resources, managers must respond to changes in both the demand environment and in the resource stock of different units. When some units successfully accumulate resources while others suffer adverse shocks, opportunity exists to improve efficiency by internally redeploying resources. Counterintuitively, optimal redeployment frequently involves shifting resources away from successful, well‐endowed units. New business units, being resource‐poor, are often the most important recipients of resources. Empirical analyses studying how firms allocate managers in a large sample of Brazilian firms offer support for these arguments.

The revolution can be improvised: An intrinsically motivating approach to equity, diversity, and inclusion


Abstract: With unfolding advances in anti‐discrimination policy, communication technology, and affordable transportation, society is gaining an historic opportunity to embrace differences in background and perspective as part of ordinary life. Unfortunately, we can be overly pessimistic about the prospect of attracting stakeholders to the work, because overwhelming societal barriers have long perpetuated narrow and inauspicious views of our paths forward. The result can be our unnecessary and ineffective reliance on top‐down imperatives as necessary to compel engagement. Improvisation can help us do better. After describing how contextual conditions are shifting favorably, I illustrate the prospective benefits of an improvisational approach to EDI—particularly in fostering intrinsic motivation—and extend basic psychological needs theory to provide guidance for successful implementation.

The new argonauts: The international migration of venture‐backed companies


Abstract: Research Summary: We use a novel longitudinal dataset, constructed from 16 downloads of VentureXpert records collected over 20 years, to characterize the international migration of venture‐capital‐backed startups. We find that: (i) 1078 firms in our sample (1.4%) migrate; (ii) countries with high levels of in‐migration also have high levels of out‐migration; (iii) migrating firms move to places with more investors; (iv) pre‐move investors and their connections most strongly predict migration patterns; and (v) movers raise more money than non‐movers, primarily from investors at their destinations. Overall, these patterns appear inconsistent with those expected if startups move primarily in search of talent or customers. Instead, the flows across countries look more like international trade, with startups seeking capital, and social connections between investors defining the shipping lanes. Managerial Summary: Although many high‐profile startups have relocated their headquarters from one country to another, systematic information on this phenomenon has been scarce. How frequently do these moves happen? Why do startups move? Over 20 years, we have built a database that can begin to answer these questions. International moves appear rare. When startups do move, they tend to move to places with more venture capital, particularly when their existing investors have connections in those places. Movers, moreover, raise more money than non‐movers, mostly from investors in their destination countries. Capital availability, rather than access to talent or proximity to customers, appears to be the strongest predictor of startup migration.




In this paper I analyze the work on exchange rates and external imbalances by University of Chicago faculty members during the university’s first 100 years, 1892 to 1992. Many people associate Chicago’s views with Milton Friedman’s advocacy for flexible exchange rates. But, of course, there was much more than that, including the work of J. Laurence Laughlin on bimetallism, Jacob Viner on the balance of payments, Lloyd Metzler on transfers, Harry Johnson on trade and currencies, Lloyd Mints on exchange rate regimes, Robert Mundell on optimal currency areas, and Arnold Harberger on shadow exchange rates, among others. The analysis shows that, although different scholars emphasized different issues, there was a common thread in this research, anchored on the role of relative prices’ changes during the adjustment process.

Cover page of My Poetry

My Poetry


This is a compilation of my poetry written between 1960 and 2023