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Open Access Publications from the University of California

About

Created in November of 1989, Issues in Applied Linguistics is a refereed journal managed, edited and published by graduate students of the UCLA Department of Applied Linguistics. The journal is published twice yearly and has established international distribution and a solid reputation in the field of Applied Linguistics.

Our aim is to publish outstanding research from students, faculty, and independent researchers in the broad areas of discourse analysis, sociolinguistics, language acquisition, language analysis, language assessment, language education, language use, and research methodology. We are particularly interested in publishing new departures and cross-disciplinary endeavors in the field of applied linguistics.

Articles

Introduction to the CLIC Conference, May 19, 1995

Coltrane would say, "Hey, Curtis, try to play this on the trombone," and I would try to run something down. I'd struggle with it and he'd say, "You're getting it" — and so on and so on. Paul Chambers lived all the way in Brooklyn, and he would get in the subway and, gig or no gig, he would come over to practice. He got this thing from Koussevitsky—the Polonaise in D minor—and he'd say "Hey Curtis, Let's play this one." It wasn't written as a duet, but we would run that down together for three offour hours. A couple of days later, we'd come back and play it again. The whole thing was just so beautiful.

Socializing Anxiety through Narrative: A Case Study

paper examines the socialization of anxiety based interactions between an agoraphobic woman daughter, who has been diagnosed with separation characterized by irrational fear of panic, feelings of situations outside the home. Although children of developing anxiety, little is known about the storytelling interactions in the Logan family suggest in the children as I) Meg portrays herself or others as protagonists helpless in a world spinning out of control; 2) the children re- moments; 3) children offer solutions to anxiety- ineffective; 4) the children portray themselves as own and others' emotions and actions; and 5) the as successful agents are undermined by subsequent narrative contributions.

Lawyers' Work in the Menendez Brothers' Murder Trial

This research addresses the interactional work by which lawyers interrogate witnesses at trial. In particular, the study examines some videotaped segments of interrogation interchange in the first Menendez brothers' murder trial and analyzes lawyer's work in attempting the impeachment of an adverse witness. The paper finds a lived orderliness of the courtroom that resides in the locally organized material detail of real-time interrogation interchange and practices.

Spatial Distribution and Participation in British Contemporary Musical Performances

The British independent ('indie') music scene is a disparate community brought together by participation in a distinctive event, the gig. By examining the participant framework of gigs, this article shows gigs to be highly structured and repetitive events. Physical placement is an indicator of the participant's level of orientation to the musical performance, the type of physical activity that participant will be engaged in, as well as the participant's age, experience, and professional status. This participant framework also informs an ideology of aging within the 'youth' culture of indie music.

Negotiating Price in an African American Beauty Salon

For many African American women, the beauty salon is a site of communal bonding, as well as a public space where professional and personal identities are coconstructed by and for women. Client-hairdresser negotiations about hair are integral to women's interactions at the salon. Negotiations must mediate between clients' personal preferences and potential economic investment and the hairdresser' s professional expertise, creative agency, and advertising potential (i.e., a clients' hairstyle advertises the hairdresser' s craft). Clients employ a range of prosodic, proxemic, and paralinguistic stances to communicate their hair preferences. A t times, the discursive stances employed by clients during negotiations serve to challenge their social identities as service recipients and hair care novices (cf. Jacoby & Gonzales, 1991). Similarly, a hairdresser' s social identity as a service provider and hair care expert can be renegotiated through stances which invite collaboration from the client. This paper discusses a client- initiated negotiation in which, on the surface, a client seeks to ascertain the hairdresser's prescribed hair treatment. However, the client's use of questions, prosody, and various paralinguistic cues suggests that this negotiation concerns the hairdresser's intended fee more so than it does her intended hair treatment. Furthermore, the client's series of questions during this negotiation seem to violate her role-expectations of hair novice and challenge the hairdresser's social identity as hair expert. As such, the client's subsequent attempt to trivialize the emphatic weight of her own questions is met with failure as the hairdresser exposes, via humor, the marked nature of those questions.

Aspect: A Linguistic Device to Convey Temporal Sequences in Discourse

This study focuses on how -guo, a perfective aspect marker in Chinese, is used by native speakers to narrate a sequence of events in their speech. The study's analysis of transcribed audio-recorded natural conversation shows that -guo indicates a situation is viewed as a bounded whole with an emphasis on the end-boundary of the situation. The discourse motivation for a speaker to use -guo is to end the situation that -guo co-occurs with and then directs the hearer's attention to the next situation. The discourse level analysis also clarifies the confusion between the analysis of -guo and another perfective particle -le in traditional studies of the Chinese aspect system: -guo is usually treated as an Experiential marker to avoid an analysis with two Perfectives. This study shows that the confusion in traditional studies stems from the limitations of sentence level analyses.

Joint Attention in a Father-Child-Mother Triad: A Chinese-American Case Study

This pcq)er presents an exploratory study of joint attention in a father-childmother triad in a Chinese-American family. The study examines how the parents of a two-year-old child elicit and sustain the attention of the child during mundane activities such as playing an educational game and telling a story. In the activities, triadic interactions are fostered by the following factors: (1) the arrangement of artifacts and spaces for participant interactions; (2) the blending of artifacts of western culture with Chinese culture; (3) the complementary roles of the parents with respect to the input they provide to the child; (4) the use of affective morphology to convey intersubjectivity and shared knowledge; and (5) the use of nonvocal linguistic cues such as gestures and eye gaze. These factors interactively contribute to joint attention, which constitutes an essential part of a child's language development, social cognition, and cultural learning.

Syncretic Practice: Change and Maintenance of the Samoan/Samoan American ^d I huh

Samoans establish new communities and identities through different linguistic strategies in the urban context ofLos Angeles. I isolated two kinds of strategies, the "minimal grasp" and the "tag particle" in both Samoan and Samoan-English, and traced the distribution of their use in everyday encounters between adults and children. Different models for socializing appropriate behavior—the Samoan way (fa^aSdmoa) and the American way (fa^apalagi)—co-exist within the same speech community. I argue that by comparing the different social organizations of language use, we may uncover how certain forms may be used to simultaneously maintain and transform cultural practices within a syncretic social space.

Social Construction of Mathematical Knowledge: Presented Problems in Mathematics Classrooms

This study examined how mathematical problems are articulated, i.e., identified and defined, in the context of a fiflh-grade lesson on equivalent fractions. Opportunities to participate in mathematical discourse and reasoning activities were closely related to the structure, organization, and content of classroom presented problems. In this lesson, the presented problem took the form of a concatenation of tasks. Each task in the series became the mathematical context that animated students' talk about solution methods. Classroom discourse limited to serial tasks constrained students' opportunities to develop relational knowledge about the properties and principles of equivalent fractions. "Does a child learn only to talk, or also to think? Does it learn the sense of multiplication before or after it learns multiplication?" -- Wittgenstein, Zettel, p. 324

The Participation Framework as a Mediating Tool in Kindergarten Journal Writing Activity

Drawing on data collected in an ethnographic study of kindergarten journal writing activity, this article demonstrates how students who are not directly participating in instruction are nevertheless key contributors to the social construction of literacy knowledge. More specifically, this study examines how the participation framework of writing activity constitutes and is constituted by the context for learning to write. Five interconnected roles in the participation framework are identified in the data and presented as a shared indexical context within which children's texts are interactionally negotiated. The author argues for a reconceptualization of classroom language and literacy practices from current dyadicbased participation frameworks to more expanded multi-party participation frameworks that allow for flexible access to the social construction of literacy knowledge. By changing the ways in which students participate in school-based literacy practices, students will be socialized to more democratic access to participation in classrooms and in the larger society. This reconceptualization of classroom language and literacy practices attempts to disrupt monolithic definitions of literacy as a reified set of "neutral" skills by challenging the sanctity of dyadic interaction in literacy activity.

"Friends aren't friends, homes": A Working Vocabulary for Referring to Rolldogs and Chuchos

In this article I analyze various apparently synonymous words for 'friend' (e.g. 'homes,' 'bro,' 'homeboy,' ese,' and 'rolldog') as they are used by one former gangmember , Mario, to persuade two current gang-members to stop "gangbanging." While giving advice to the two current gangsters, Mario uses a variety of words in order to refer to "so-called friends" and to index the fact that he is, though no longer a gangster, part of the same community as his addressees. This analysis also shows how the meanings of these disparate reference terms are made and re-made through talk as conversationalists use these words to put forward their contrasting points of view.