In this Letter, we report the site-controlledgrowth of InP nanolasers on a silicon substrate with patterned SiO2 nanomasks by low-temperature metal−organic chemicalvapor deposition, compatible with silicon complementary metal−oxide−semiconductor (CMOS) post-processing. A two-step growth procedure is presented to achieve smooth wurtzite faceting of vertical nanopillars. By incorporating InGaAs multiquantum wells, the nanopillar emission can be tuned over a wide spectral range. Enhanced quality factors of the intrinsic InP nanopillar cavities promote lasing at 0.87 and 1.21 μm, located within two important optical telecommunication bands. This is the first demonstration of a site-controlled III−V nanolaser monolithically integrated on silicon with a silicon-transparent emission wavelength, paving the way for energy-efficient on-chip optical links at typical telecommunication wavelengths.