Skip to main content
eScholarship
Open Access Publications from the University of California
Cover page of North Campus Open Space Restoration Project Monitoring Report: Year 6, December 2023

North Campus Open Space Restoration Project Monitoring Report: Year 6, December 2023

(2024)

The North Campus Open Space (NCOS) restoration project has created more than 40 acres of estuarine and palustrine wetlands that historically comprised the upper portion of Devereux Slough that was filled in the mid-1960s to create the Ocean Meadows golf course. The project also restored more than 60 acres of upland habitats that include native grassland, coastal sage scrub, riparian, oak chaparral woodland, vernal pools and patches of annual wildflowers in clay and sandy soils. This report summarizes the results from monitoring native and non-native plants, birds, small mammals, aquatic invertebrates, tree growth, and hydrological functions.

Cover page of Nipomo Mesa Lupine Seed Predation and Herbivory Study

Nipomo Mesa Lupine Seed Predation and Herbivory Study

(2023)

The 2022 Nipomo Mesa Lupine Seed Predation and Herbivory Study analyzed the impact that animals and insects have on the germination success of the Nipomo Mesa lupine. Seed and plant herbivory was monitored at two different sites in Nipomo, California to identify the species that have been predating on the lupine and also compare how different planting locations impact herbivory. The three different treatments monitored were seeds set out in caged plots, uncaged plots near vegetation, and uncaged plots far from vegetation. Seed count data was collected at the beginning of the monitoring process (January 24, 2022) and at the end (May 17th, 2022). This data indicated that caged plots had the most herbivory activity, and then uncaged near vegetation, and lastly uncaged far from vegetation. However, this data is not sufficient to draw conclusions because of the high likelihood that seeds were blown out of the bait boxes by wind. Motion sensor trail cameras were also set up at each one of the 8 plots and video footage was collected. Video footage indicated that uncaged sites near vegetation showed the most seed predation, with kangaroo rats and deer mice being the primary predators. Video footage from the uncaged bait stations far from vegetation showed the most evidence of plant herbivory, mainly by cottontails and several bird species. Lastly, caged bait stations showed little herbivory activity, however birds and rodents were still seen in the cages. There was a high prevalence of insect activity in the caged plots, but it is undetermined what their effect was. The camera’s capture rates were extremely low due to technical difficulties associated with the delay between the trigger and the start of the video and seed data was not collected frequently enough to rule out factors other than seed predation in the removal of seeds from the bait stations. Therefore, further studies should be conducted to analyze the impact of these species on the Nipomo Mesa Lupine due to the limitations of this study.

Cover page of Assessing the impact of Clethodim on the Vigor, Seed Production and Seed Viability of the Endangered <em>Lupinus nipomensis</em>

Assessing the impact of Clethodim on the Vigor, Seed Production and Seed Viability of the Endangered Lupinus nipomensis

(2023)

The Clethodim, grass-specific herbicide, experiment was conducted on 60 Nipomo lupine (Lupinus nipomensis) seedlings (10 replicates x 6 treatments).  The goal of the research was to evaluate the potential impact of the field application of Clethodim over growing seedlings of the endangered Nipomo lupine through direct spray or aerial (helicopter) application as part of the Guadalupe Dunes Management team’s efforts to eliminate Ehrharta calycina (perennial veldt grass) from the fragile dune habitat. Work is conducted under a CDFW Permit to Study the Effects of Clethodim Herbicide on Nipomo Mesa Lupine (Lupinus nipomensis) (permit No. 2081(a)-19-017-RP). The most effective time to apply the herbicide is early in the growing season of the grass (January) which coincides with the typical time for lupine germination. Spraying may also occur later in the winter or during the spring as perennial veldt grass continues its growth which coincides with the time when lupine may be flowering or fruiting.  The experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of the herbicide on both stages of potted lupine seedlings to determine if Clethodim and associated surfactants affects the seedlings under either stage of growth.  The goal is to more efficiently manage this invasive plant across the dune ecosystem by securing permit to allow for spraying within occupied Nipomo lupine habitat by both aerial methods (helicopter) and/or by ground crews.  Past restrictions on management of veldt grass adjacent to the Nipomo lupine population centers has resulted in a dense cover of the invasive grass around the remnant lupine population.  The results of this study indicate that there is no significant effect on vigor, lifespan, or seed production of either aerial (larger droplets) or direct spray application of the recommended herbicide and surfactant mixture on either newly leafing out seedlings or flowering individuals. In addition, seeds from the 6 treatment combinations were evaluated for their viability and we recorded the highest seed viability for all treatments (100%) relative to previous seed germination trials. 

Cover page of Nipomo Lupine (<em>Lupinus nipomensis</em>) 2021-22 Year Outplanting and Assessment Studies

Nipomo Lupine (Lupinus nipomensis) 2021-22 Year Outplanting and Assessment Studies

(2023)

During the 2019-20 hydrologic year several projects were initiated which were designed to evaluate questions resulting from the long-term Black Lake Ecological Area (BLEA) Nipomo Lupine (Lupinus nipomensis) outplanting experiment. These include an assessment of soil conditions at various sites, an assessment of soil moisture at multiple sites and two additional experimental outplanting trials to evaluate the extent to which fog collection by cages could be more of a factor than herbivory-protection and to evaluate whether there are any benefits to lupine survival from growing ‘with’ versus ‘without’ other plants nearby. Results from those studies were compiled in the 2019-20 and 2020-21 reports after a second seeding of those experiments in 2020.

This report covers results from monitoring of the two experimental trials over the 2021-22 winter which was, again, very dry and reduced the number of seedlings which survived to produce seeds. This report also covers the 2021-22 augmentation effort which included 23 plots each seeded with 500 seeds established in the swales at BLEA (2014/15 trial swale and 2019 trial swale) and Kathleen Goddard Jones Overlook swale (KGJO). These plots included modest variation to further track the pros and cons of seed scarification and fencing/caging as well as parallel camera trap studies designed to document seed predation and plant herbivory.

Cover page of UC Santa Barbara's Role in Protecting the Upper Devereux Slough

UC Santa Barbara's Role in Protecting the Upper Devereux Slough

(2023)

History of the North Campus Open Space Restoration: The Outcome of County, City of Goleta, and UCSB Collaborative Planning, written by Dr. Duncan A. Mellichamp. This article recounts the involvement of the author, Duncan A. Mellichamp, in shaping the conservation of critical coastal habitats near the UC Santa Barbara campus. The article highlights collaborative planning efforts that included the County of Santa Barbara, City of Goleta, Trust for Public Land, UCSB, and many others, all of which set the stage for the restoration of the North Campus Open Space (formerly Ocean Meadows Golf Course).

Cover page of Exploring photogrammetric methods to extend Anthophilia research (Big-Bee) interim report

Exploring photogrammetric methods to extend Anthophilia research (Big-Bee) interim report

(2023)

1. The decline of bee populations has become a growing concern due to the importance of bees' roles in pollination and maintaining ecosystems (Klein et al., 2007). Several factors that have contributed to the decline in bee populations include habitat loss, pesticide use, climate change, and the spread of diseases (Potts et al., 2010).

2. Approximately 2,171,588 bee specimens have digitized label data in the US collections; however, only a fraction of species can be assessed due to a lack of data on key species-level traits. Thus, data collection must be extended past labeled data.

3. Photogrammetry – a 3D image reconstruction method –  proves to be a viable option for creating accurate models of bees; however, there are computational and data limitations that can affect model generation runtime and accuracy. Thus, additional data – such as volume – can be measured which is unobtainable from images.

4. Macro-photography poses issues when used as input for photogrammetry methods due to the limited depth of field. Focus-stacking methods can create in full focus images that are appropriate inputs for photogrammetry.

Cover page of Nipomo Lupine Seed Status Report 2022

Nipomo Lupine Seed Status Report 2022

(2022)

This report is a summary of the Cheadle Center’s remaining seed including the seed produced during the 2021/2022 season. The Cheadle Center has been working on the propagation and seed bulking of Lupinus nipomensis since 2012. This report focuses on the remaining seed in store from the past three growing seasons, 2020, 2021, and 2022.

Cover page of Aquatic Invertebrates of the Devereux Slough&nbsp;2018-19

Aquatic Invertebrates of the Devereux Slough 2018-19

(2022)

In 2018, the hardscape construction of NCOS (North Campus Open Space), a restored, closed estuary, wetland on the Northern border of COPR (Coal Oil Point Reserve), was completed; thus, approximately doubling its overall size and offering the rather unique opportunity of being able to compare the well-established COPR wetland with the newly constructed, adjoining, NCOS wetland. Basic water quality and aquatic invertebrate monitoring data collection of both sites were undertaken to help better understand the dynamics of how a newly constructed wetland develops into an established wetland and to establish a baseline for future monitoring. Aquatic invertebrate sampling protocols were evaluated indicating that sampling in algae gives more than an order-of-magnitude greater abundance and diversity than sampling in open water and that the Filtered Beaker method gives more precise species density information than the Sweep-Net method; when sampling at shallower depths where the Sweep-Net is not fully submerged. Additionally, there are significant issues with how benthic samples are traditionally collected and analyzed. Four taxa are the more significant contributors to the total taxa observed –Copepods, Ostracods, Cladocera, and Corixidae. Additionally, we found Oligochaete, Chironomids, Nematodes, and Ephydridae in significant abundance. The type and number of invertebrates collected are evaluated in terms of site, salinity, and location in the sampling column (planktonic or benthic).

Cover page of North Campus Open Space Restoration Project Monitoring Report: Year 4 (2021)

North Campus Open Space Restoration Project Monitoring Report: Year 4 (2021)

(2022)

The University of Santa Barbara’s (UCSB) North Campus Open Space (NCOS) 100 acre restoration project has restored more than 40 acres of estuarine and palustrine wetlands that historically comprised the upper portion of Devereux Slough that was filled in the mid-1960s to create the Ocean Meadows golf course. Led by the Cheadle Center for Biodiversity and Ecological Restoration (CCBER) the project is also restoring more than 60 acres of upland habitats that include native grassland, coastal sage scrub, riparian, oak chaparral woodland, vernal pools and seasonal wetlands. In addition to wetland and upland habitat restoration, goals of the NCOS project include flood reduction, support for threatened and endangered species, public access and the provision of educational opportunities.

This report presents monitoring results from the past 4 years with more emphasis on the fourth year (2021) of monitoring. This report documents the efforts and results of monitoring that include monthly bird surveys, yearly vegetation surveys, water quality and hydrology sampling, well depth monitoring, rodent, reptile and amphibian monitoring, aquatic arthropod monitoring and much more. The project is meeting key success criteria with variation in bird composition, vernal pool hydrology, and native cover associated with the extreme drought conditions of 2021.