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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Open Access Policy Deposits

This series is automatically populated with publications deposited by UC Irvine Donald Bren School of Information and Computer Sciences Department of Computer Science researchers in accordance with the University of California’s open access policies. For more information see Open Access Policy Deposits and the UC Publication Management System.
Cover page of Symposium: Workgroup on Interactive Systems in Healthcare (WISH)

Symposium: Workgroup on Interactive Systems in Healthcare (WISH)


The Workgroup on Interactive Systems in Healthcare (WISH) connects academic and industry researchers across human-computer interaction, medical informatics, health informatics, digital health, and beyond to foster a community around innovations in consumer and medical health and wellbeing. The WISH Symposium at CHI 2023 will regather the HCI health and wellbeing research community for the first in-person community meeting in four years, allowing us to discuss and disseminate findings, methods, and approaches towards understanding and creating interactive health and wellbeing systems. We will continue the tradition of providing mentoring opportunities for early- and mid-career researchers, ranging from undergraduates to post-PhD, to establish future generations of scholars in the area. This will be the tenth WISH meeting, following a successful tradition of workshops at relevant venues including CHI over the past decade.

Cover page of Triboelectric backgrounds to radio-based polar ultra-high energy neutrino (UHEN) experiments

Triboelectric backgrounds to radio-based polar ultra-high energy neutrino (UHEN) experiments


In the hopes of observing the highest-energy neutrinos (E>1 EeV) populating the Universe, both past (RICE, AURA, ANITA) and current (RNO-G, ARIANNA, ARA and TAROGE-M) polar-sited experiments exploit the impulsive radio emission produced by neutrino interactions. In such experiments, rare single event candidates must be unambiguously identified above backgrounds. Background rejection strategies to date primarily target thermal noise fluctuations and also impulsive radio-frequency signals of anthropogenic origin. In this paper, we consider the possibility that ‘fake’ neutrino signals may also be generated naturally via the ‘triboelectric effect.’ This broadly describes any process in which force applied at a boundary layer results in displacement of surface charge, leading to the production of an electrostatic potential difference ΔV. Wind blowing over granular surfaces such as snow can induce such a potential difference, with subsequent coronal discharge. Discharges over timescales as short as nanoseconds can then lead to radio-frequency emissions at characteristic MHz–GHz frequencies. Using data from various past (RICE, AURA, SATRA, ANITA) and current (RNO-G, ARIANNA and ARA) neutrino experiments, we find evidence for such backgrounds, which are generally characterized by: (a) a threshold wind velocity which likely depends on the experimental trigger criteria and layout; for the experiments considered herein, this value is typically O(10 m/s), (b) frequency spectra generally shifted to the low-end of the frequency regime to which current radio experiments are typically sensitive (100–200 MHz), (c) for the strongest background signals, an apparent preference for discharges from above-surface structures, although the presence of more isotropic, lower amplitude triboelectric discharges cannot be excluded.

Cover page of Supporting lifestyle change in obese pregnant mothers through the wearable internet-of-things (SLIM) -intervention for overweight pregnant women: Study protocol for a quasi-experimental trial.

Supporting lifestyle change in obese pregnant mothers through the wearable internet-of-things (SLIM) -intervention for overweight pregnant women: Study protocol for a quasi-experimental trial.



To assess, in terms of self-efficacy in weight management, the effectiveness of the SLIM lifestyle intervention among overweight or obese women during pregnancy and after delivery, and further to exploit machine learning and event mining approaches to build personalized models. Additionally, the aim is to evaluate the implementation of the SLIM intervention.


This prospective trial, which is a non-randomized, quasi-experimental, pre-post intervention, includes an embedded mixed-method process evaluation. The SLIM Intervention is delivered by public health nurses (n = 9) working in maternity clinics. The public health nurses recruited overweight women (n = 54) at their first antenatal visit using convenience sampling. The core components of the intervention i.e. health technology, motivational interviewing, feedback, and goal setting, are utilized in antenatal visits in maternity clinics starting from gestational week 15 or less and continuing to 12 weeks after delivery. Mixed effect models are used to evaluate change over time in self-efficacy, weight management and weight change. Simple mediation models are used to assess calories consumed and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) as mediators between self-efficacy and weight change. Signal processing and machine learning techniques are exploited to extract events from the data collected via the Oura ring and smartphone-based questionnaires.


The SLIM intervention was developed in collaboration with overweight women and public health nurses working in maternity clinics. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the intervention among overweight women in increasing self-efficacy and achieving a healthy weight; thus, impacting the healthy lifestyle and long-term health of the whole family. The long-term objective is to contribute to women's health by supporting weight-management through behavior change via interventions conducted in maternity clinics.

Trial registration

The trial was registered at the register platform (ID NCT04826861) on 17 March 2021.

Cover page of The DOE E3SM Model Version 2: Overview of the Physical Model and Initial Model Evaluation

The DOE E3SM Model Version 2: Overview of the Physical Model and Initial Model Evaluation


This work documents version two of the Department of Energy's Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM). E3SMv2 is a significant evolution from its predecessor E3SMv1, resulting in a model that is nearly twice as fast and with a simulated climate that is improved in many metrics. We describe the physical climate model in its lower horizontal resolution configuration consisting of 110 km atmosphere, 165 km land, 0.5° river routing model, and an ocean and sea ice with mesh spacing varying between 60 km in the mid-latitudes and 30 km at the equator and poles. The model performance is evaluated with Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Characterization of Klima simulations augmented with historical simulations as well as simulations to evaluate impacts of different forcing agents. The simulated climate has many realistic features of the climate system, with notable improvements in clouds and precipitation compared to E3SMv1. E3SMv1 suffered from an excessively high equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) of 5.3 K. In E3SMv2, ECS is reduced to 4.0 K which is now within the plausible range based on a recent World Climate Research Program assessment. However, a number of important biases remain including a weak Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, deficiencies in the characteristics and spectral distribution of tropical atmospheric variability, and a significant underestimation of the observed warming in the second half of the historical period. An analysis of single-forcing simulations indicates that correcting the historical temperature bias would require a substantial reduction in the magnitude of the aerosol-related forcing.

Cover page of Mapping age- and sex-specific HIV prevalence in adults in sub-Saharan Africa, 2000-2018.

Mapping age- and sex-specific HIV prevalence in adults in sub-Saharan Africa, 2000-2018.



Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is still among the leading causes of disease burden and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and the world is not on track to meet targets set for ending the epidemic by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Precise HIV burden information is critical for effective geographic and epidemiological targeting of prevention and treatment interventions. Age- and sex-specific HIV prevalence estimates are widely available at the national level, and region-wide local estimates were recently published for adults overall. We add further dimensionality to previous analyses by estimating HIV prevalence at local scales, stratified into sex-specific 5-year age groups for adults ages 15-59 years across SSA.


We analyzed data from 91 seroprevalence surveys and sentinel surveillance among antenatal care clinic (ANC) attendees using model-based geostatistical methods to produce estimates of HIV prevalence across 43 countries in SSA, from years 2000 to 2018, at a 5 × 5-km resolution and presented among second administrative level (typically districts or counties) units.


We found substantial variation in HIV prevalence across localities, ages, and sexes that have been masked in earlier analyses. Within-country variation in prevalence in 2018 was a median 3.5 times greater across ages and sexes, compared to for all adults combined. We note large within-district prevalence differences between age groups: for men, 50% of districts displayed at least a 14-fold difference between age groups with the highest and lowest prevalence, and at least a 9-fold difference for women. Prevalence trends also varied over time; between 2000 and 2018, 70% of all districts saw a reduction in prevalence greater than five percentage points in at least one sex and age group. Meanwhile, over 30% of all districts saw at least a five percentage point prevalence increase in one or more sex and age group.


As the HIV epidemic persists and evolves in SSA, geographic and demographic shifts in prevention and treatment efforts are necessary. These estimates offer epidemiologically informative detail to better guide more targeted interventions, vital for combating HIV in SSA.