Multichroic Bolometric Detector Architecture for Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry Experiments
Characterization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) B-mode polarization signal will test models of inflationary cosmology, as well as constrain the sum of the neutrino masses and other cosmological parameters. The low intensity of the B-mode signal combined with the need to remove polarized galactic foregrounds requires a sensitive millimeter receiver and effective methods of foreground removal. Current bolometric detector technology is reaching the sensitivity limit set by the CMB photon noise. Thus, we need to increase the optical throughput to increase an experiment's sensitivity. To increase the throughput without increasing the focal plane size, we can increase the frequency coverage of each pixel. Increased frequency coverage per pixel has additional advantage that we can split the signal into frequency bands to obtain spectral information. The detection of multiple frequency bands allows for removal of the polarized foreground emission from synchrotron radiation and thermal dust emission, by utilizing its spectral dependence. Traditionally, spectral information has been captured with a multi-chroic focal plane consisting of a heterogeneous mix of single-color pixels. To maximize the efficiency of the focal plane area, we developed a multi-chroic pixel. This increases the number of pixels per frequency with same focal plane area.
We developed multi-chroic antenna-coupled transition edge sensor (TES) detector array for the CMB polarimetry. In each pixel, a silicon lens-coupled dual polarized sinuous antenna collects light over a two-octave frequency band. The antenna couples the broadband millimeter wave signal into microstrip transmission lines, and on-chip filter banks split the broadband signal into several frequency bands. Separate TES bolometers detect the power in each frequency band and linear polarization. We will describe the design and performance of these devices and present optical data taken with prototype pixels and detector arrays. Our measurements show beams with percent level ellipticity, percent level cross-polarization leakage, and partitioned bands using banks of two and three filters. We will also describe the development of broadband anti-reflection coatings for the high dielectric constant lens. The broadband anti-reflection coating has approximately 100% bandwidth and no detectable loss at cryogenic temperature.
We will describe a next generation CMB polarimetry experiment, the POLARBEAR-2, in detail. The POLARBEAR-2 would have focal planes with kilo-pixel of these detectors to achieve high sensitivity. We'll also introduce proposed experiments that would use multi-chroic detector array we developed in this work. We'll conclude by listing out suggestions for future multichroic detector development.