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Frequency Doubling Technology Perimetry and Changes in Quality of Life of Glaucoma Patients: A Longitudinal Study

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To evaluate the relationship between rates of change on frequency doubling technology (FDT) perimetry and longitudinal changes in quality of life (QoL) of glaucoma patients.


Prospective observational cohort study.


One hundred fifty-two subjects (127 glaucoma and 25 healthy) were followed for an average of 3.2 ± 1.1 years. All subjects were evaluated with National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25), FDT, and standard automated perimetry (SAP). Glaucoma patients had a median of 3 NEI VFQ-25, 8 FDT, and 8 SAP tests during follow-up. Mean sensitivities of the integrated binocular visual fields were estimated for FDT and SAP and used to calculate rates of change. A joint longitudinal multivariable mixed model was used to investigate the association between change in binocular mean sensitivities and change in NEI VFQ-25 Rasch-calibrated scores.


There was a statistically significant correlation between change in binocular mean sensitivity for FDT and change in NEI VFQ-25 scores during follow-up in the glaucoma group. In multivariable analysis with the confounding factors, each 1 dB/year change in binocular FDT mean sensitivity corresponded to a change of 0.8 units per year in the NEI VFQ-25 scores (P = .001). For binocular SAP mean sensitivity, each 1 dB/year change was associated with 2.4 units per year change in NEI VFQ-25 scores (P < .001). The multivariable model containing baseline and rate of change information from SAP had stronger ability to predict change in NEI VFQ-25 scores compared to the equivalent model for FDT (R(2) of 50% and 30%, respectively; P = .001).


SAP performed significantly better than FDT in predicting change in NEI VFQ-25 scores in our population, suggesting that it may still be the preferable perimetric technique for predicting risk of disability from the disease.

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