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Superior Cathode of Sodium-Ion Batteries: Orthorhombic V2O5 Nanoparticles Generated in Nanoporous Carbon by Ambient Hydrolysis Deposition

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For the first time, we demonstrate that orthorhombic V2O5 can exhibit superior electrochemical performance in sodium ion batteries when uniformly coated inside nanoporous carbon. The encapsulated V2O5 shows a specific capacity as high as 276 mAh/g, while the whole nanocomposite exhibits a capacity of 170 mAh/g. The V2O5/C composite was fabricated by a novel ambient hydrolysis deposition that features sequential water vapor adsorption in nanoporous carbon, followed by a hydrolysis reaction, exclusively inside the nanopores. The unique structure of the nanocomposite significantly enhances the capacity as well as the rate performance of orthorhombic V2O5 where the composite retains a capacity of over 90 mAh/g at a current rate of 640 mA/g. Furthermore, by calculating, we also revealed that a large portion of the sodium-ion storage, particularly at high current rates, is due to the V2O5 pseudocapacitance.

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