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Cover page of Britannicus or The Secrets of Space

Britannicus or The Secrets of Space

(2107)

The secret motives and decisions of the play are generally confined to the wings where no prying eye or ear, including the spectator's, can perceive them. The stage then becomes an intermediary present between the past and another present happening out of sight but just as significant.

Cover page of Introduction youth language at the intersection

Introduction youth language at the intersection

(2022)

This special issue examines the linguistic production of youth identities under conditions of cultural mobility. Building on theories of migration, transnationalism, and globalization that have emerged in anthropology, cultural studies, and other fields, the contributions to the special issue investigate not simply the large-scale cultural and political processes that shape the lives of youth but equally how youth identities emerge through the fine-grained details of interactional work and local linguistic practice. The introduction lays out the major themes that run through the special issue: the importance of scholarly attentiveness to the diversity of youth identities; the recognition of youth as social agents moving across national boundaries both physically and symbolically; the role of local ethnographic practice in investigations of global and transnational phenomena and especially the centrality of interaction as the primary site of social life; and the significance of language as a key resource for the articulation and negotiation of social identities, relations, and processes.

Cover page of Alternate Cultural Paradigms in Latinx Psychology: An Empirical, Collaborative Exploration

Alternate Cultural Paradigms in Latinx Psychology: An Empirical, Collaborative Exploration

(2022)

In an effort to systematize and organize an exploration of alternate cultural paradigms from a Latinx perspective, the membership of the National Latinx Psychological Association was surveyed via its electronic mailing list in successive rounds. The first invitation asked members to identify alternate cultural paradigms they use in their work or are familiar with; a definition of alternate cultural paradigms and some examples were provided. Responses were summarized and redistributed to the entire list, seeking further input. This process was followed a total of four times. The range of contributions extended from journal articles, to books, to authors, individuals, and movements. The compiled responses were then analyzed using qualitative methodology in the form of thematic analysis. The resulting taxonomy addresses the promotion of health and wellness in Latinx communities through the use of alternate cultural paradigms, and culturally adapted treatments and interventions. The former is made of examples and sources that emphasize combatting oppression and inequities as well as the use of cultural traditions, norms, and specific values. Though not identified as exemplary of alternate cultural paradigms, the latter refers to evidence-based or widely used treatments that have been modified (i.e., adapted) in an effort to improve service efficacy with Latinxs.

Cover page of Alternate Cultural Paradigms in Psychology: Long Overdue Recognition and Further Articulations

Alternate Cultural Paradigms in Psychology: Long Overdue Recognition and Further Articulations

(2022)

Many ethnic-acknowledging psychology researchers, practitioners, and their allies have expressed dissatisfaction with Eurowestern, mainstream psychology in the United States as it shows serious shortcomings when used to understand and serve minoritized communities. Eurowestern psychology has been criticized for its imperialistic, one-size-fits-all view of humanity. Accordingly, we challenge the neglect of the history and value of ethnic acknowledgment in psychology perpetrated and maintained by Eurowestern psychology, including mainstream psychology in the United States. We operationalize such challenge by articulating the construct of alternate cultural paradigms, by following it with a series of contributions authored by leading figures from each of the Ethnic Acknowledging Psychological Associations (EAPAs) in the United States, and by closing with a commentary by a renowned scholar in the field. The current article, followed by five separate and distinct articles from authors identified with each of the EAPAs (i.e., the Association of Black Psychologists [ABPsi], the National Latinx Psychological Association [NLPA], the Society of Indian Psychologists [SIP], the Asian American Psychological Association [AAPA], the Arab, Middle Eastern, and North African Psychological Association [AMENA-Psy]), together with a concluding commentary conforms the Special Issue on alternate cultural paradigms in psychology in the United States.

Cover page of Mapping river recharge rates with stable isotopes and tritium-helium groundwater ages

Mapping river recharge rates with stable isotopes and tritium-helium groundwater ages

(2022)

While climate change will challenge the future of California’s water resources, groundwater can buffer variability in precipitation and streamflow, if managed sustainably. Enhanced river recharge is an important tool to reach sustainable groundwater management in the California Central Valley (USA). Understanding and predicting recharge rates of river water, either natural river bank infiltration or managed aquifer recharge (MAR) during floods (Flood-MAR) or on agricultural land (Ag-MAR) is essential to evaluate the sustainability of groundwater management plans. Groundwater ages, combined with other isotopic and noble gas evidence, can elucidate surface water-groundwater interactions and support river recharge rates calculations over longer time periods.

Our study is focused on the recharge from the Cosumnes River in the California Central Valley. The Cosumnes River forms the boundary between the Sacramento Valley groundwater basin to the north and the San Joaquin Valley groundwater basin to the south. For this study, 28 new samples were collected for the analysis of 3H/3He age, noble gases, and stable isotopes. 25 additional samples from the California Waterboards Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Shallow Aquifer Assessment program were included, which were collected and analyzed by the USGS California Water Science Center in 2017.

We find that 28% of groundwater in the San Joaquin – Cosumnes groundwater subbasin originated as river water recharge, based on the interpolated mean δ18O (7.7 ‰ ), compared with river water (-9 ‰) and local precipitation recharge (-7 ‰) end-members. River water is a source of modern recharge, resulting in high tritium concentrations close to the Cosumnes River. In contrast, ambient groundwater from local precipitation recharge is predominantly pre-modern or fossil, containing less than 1 pCi/L tritium. Combining groundwater ages with the distance to the river, aquifer thickness, and porosity, estimates of river water recharge rate vary between 0.02 km3/yr and 0.035 km3/yr. These quantitative estimates of river water recharge will constrain the numerical groundwater flow model for this basin and aid groundwater managers in developing sustainability plans to balance groundwater pumping with recharge rates.

Cover page of Unsupervised morphological segmentation in a language with reduplication

Unsupervised morphological segmentation in a language with reduplication

(2022)

We present an extension of the Morfessor Baseline model of unsupervised morphological segmentation (Creutz and Lagus, 2007) that incorporates abstract templates for reduplication, a typologically common but computationally underaddressed process. Through a detailed investigation that applies the model to Māori, the Indigenous language of Aotearoa New Zealand, we show that incorporating templates improves Morfessor’s ability to identify instances of reduplication, and does so most when there are multiple minimally-overlapping templates. We present an error analysis that reveals important factors to consider when applying the extended model and suggests useful future directions.

ABI5 binding protein2 inhibits ABA responses during germination without ABA-INSENSITIVE5 degradation.

(2022)

Overexpression of ABA-INSENSITIVE5 binding proteins (AFPs) results in extreme ABA resistance of seeds and failure to acquire desiccation tolerance, at least in part through effects on chromatin modification. We tested the hypothesis that AFPs promote germination in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by also functioning as adapters for E3 ligases that ubiquitinate ABI5, leading to its degradation. Interactions between AFPs and two well-characterized classes of E3 ligases targeting ABI5, DWD HYPERSENSITIVE TO ABA (DWA)s and KEEP ON GOING, were analyzed by yeast two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and genetic assays. Although weak direct interactions were detected between AFPs and E3 ligases, loss of function for these E3 ligases did not impair ABA-resistance conferred by overexpression of the YFP-AFP2 fusion. Comparison of ABI5 and AFP2 levels in these lines showed that AFP2 accumulation increased during germination, but that ABI5 degradation followed germination, demonstrating that AFP2 overexpression reduces ABA sensitivity, thereby permitting germination prior to ABI5 degradation. Surprisingly, AFP2 overexpression in the dwa1 dwa2 mutant background produced the unusual combination of extreme ABA resistance and desiccation tolerance, creating an opportunity to separate the underlying biochemical characteristics of ABA sensitivity and desiccation tolerance. Our quantitative proteomics analysis identified at least three-fold more differentially accumulated seed proteins than previous studies. Comparison of dry seed proteomes of wild-type or dwa1 dwa2 mutants with or without AFP2 overexpression allowed us to separate and refine the changes in protein accumulation patterns associated with desiccation tolerance independently of ABA sensitivity, or vice versa, to a subset of cold-induced and defense stress-responsive proteins and signaling regulators.

Assessing Factor V Antigen and Degradation Products in Burn and Trauma Patients.

(2022)

Introduction

Proposed mechanisms of acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) include decreased clotting potential due to factor consumption and proteolytic inactivation of factor V (FV) and activated factor V (FVa) by activated protein C (aPC). The role of FV/FVa depletion or inactivation in burn-induced coagulopathy is not well characterized. This study evaluates FV dynamics following burn and nonburn trauma.

Methods

Burn and trauma patients were prospectively enrolled. Western blotting was performed on admission plasma to quantitate levels of FV antigen and to assess for aPC or other proteolytically derived FV/FVa degradation products. Statistical analysis was performed with Spearman's, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U test, and logistic regression.

Results

Burn (n = 60) and trauma (n = 136) cohorts showed similar degrees of FV consumption with median FV levels of 76% versus 73% (P = 0.65) of normal, respectively. Percent total body surface area (TBSA) was not correlated with FV, nor were significant differences in median FV levels observed between low and high TBSA groups. The injury severity score (ISS) in trauma patients was inversely correlated with FV (ρ = -0.26; P = 0.01) and ISS ≥ 25 was associated with a lower FV antigen level (64% versus. 93%; P = 0.009). The proportion of samples showing proteolysis-derived FV was greater in trauma than burn patients (42% versus. 16%; P = 0.0006).

Conclusions

Increasing traumatic injury severity is associated with decreased FV antigen levels, and a greater proportion of trauma patient samples exhibit proteolytically degraded FV fragments. These associations are not present in burns, suggesting that mechanisms underlying FV depletion in burn and nonburn trauma are not identical.