The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey: Giant Planet and Brown Dwarf Demographics From 10-100 AU
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The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey: Giant Planet and Brown Dwarf Demographics From 10-100 AU

  • Author(s): Nielsen, Eric L
  • Rosa, Robert J De
  • Macintosh, Bruce
  • Wang, Jason J
  • Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste
  • Chiang, Eugene
  • Marley, Mark S
  • Saumon, Didier
  • Savransky, Dmitry
  • Ammons, S Mark
  • Bailey, Vanessa P
  • Barman, Travis
  • Blain, Celia
  • Bulger, Joanna
  • Chilcote, Jeffrey
  • Cotten, Tara
  • Czekala, Ian
  • Doyon, Rene
  • Duchene, Gaspard
  • Esposito, Thomas M
  • Fabrycky, Daniel
  • Fitzgerald, Michael P
  • Follette, Katherine B
  • Fortney, Jonathan J
  • Gerard, Benjamin L
  • Goodsell, Stephen J
  • Graham, James R
  • Greenbaum, Alexandra Z
  • Hibon, Pascale
  • Hinkley, Sasha
  • Hirsch, Lea A
  • Hom, Justin
  • Hung, Li-Wei
  • Dawson, Rebekah Ilene
  • Ingraham, Patrick
  • Kalas, Paul
  • Konopacky, Quinn
  • Larkin, James E
  • Lee, Eve J
  • Lin, Jonathan W
  • Maire, Jerome
  • Marchis, Franck
  • Marois, Christian
  • Metchev, Stanimir
  • Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A
  • Morzinski, Katie M
  • Oppenheimer, Rebecca
  • Palmer, David
  • Patience, Jennifer
  • Perrin, Marshall
  • Poyneer, Lisa
  • Pueyo, Laurent
  • Rafikov, Roman R
  • Rajan, Abhijith
  • Rameau, Julien
  • Fredrik, T Rantakyr O
  • Ren, Bin
  • Schneider, Adam C
  • Sivaramakrishnan, Anand
  • Song, Inseok
  • Soummer, Remi
  • Tallis, Melisa
  • Thomas, Sandrine
  • Ward-Duong, Kimberly
  • Wolff, Schuyler
  • et al.
Abstract

We present a statistical analysis of the first 300 stars observed by the Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey (GPIES). This subsample includes six detected planets and three brown dwarfs; from these detections and our contrast curves we infer the underlying distributions of substellar companions with respect to their mass, semi-major axis, and host stellar mass. We uncover a strong correlation between planet occurrence rate and host star mass, with stars M $>$ 1.5 $M_\odot$ more likely to host planets with masses between 2-13 M$_{\rm Jup}$ and semi-major axes of 3-100 au at 99.92% confidence. We fit a double power-law model in planet mass (m) and semi-major axis (a) for planet populations around high-mass stars (M $>$ 1.5M$_\odot$) of the form $\frac{d^2 N}{dm da} \propto m^\alpha a^\beta$, finding $\alpha$ = -2.4 $\pm$ 0.8 and $\beta$ = -2.0 $\pm$ 0.5, and an integrated occurrence rate of $9^{+5}_{-4}$% between 5-13 M$_{\rm Jup}$ and 10-100 au. A significantly lower occurrence rate is obtained for brown dwarfs around all stars, with 0.8$^{+0.8}_{-0.5}$% of stars hosting a brown dwarf companion between 13-80 M$_{\rm Jup}$ and 10-100 au. Brown dwarfs also appear to be distributed differently in mass and semi-major axis compared to giant planets; whereas giant planets follow a bottom-heavy mass distribution and favor smaller semi-major axes, brown dwarfs exhibit just the opposite behaviors. Comparing to studies of short-period giant planets from the RV method, our results are consistent with a peak in occurrence of giant planets between ~1-10 au. We discuss how these trends, including the preference of giant planets for high-mass host stars, point to formation of giant planets by core/pebble accretion, and formation of brown dwarfs by gravitational instability.

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