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Prevalence and Trends of Metabolic Syndrome in the Adult U.S. Population, 1999-2010

  • Author(s): Beltrán-Sánchez, H
  • Harhay, MO
  • Harhay, MM
  • McElligott, S
  • et al.
Abstract

Objectives This study sought to characterize the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), its 5 components, and their pharmacological treatment in U.S. adults by sex and race/ethnicity over time. Background MetS is a constellation of clinical risk factors for cardiovascular disease, stroke, kidney disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods Prevalence estimates were estimated in adults (≥20 years of age) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2010 (in 2-year survey waves). The biological thresholds, defined by the 2009 Joint Scientific Statement, were: 1) waist circumference ≥102 cm (males adults) and ≥88 cm (female adults); 2) fasting plasma glucose ≥100 mg/dl; 3) blood pressure of ≧130/85 mm Hg; 4) triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl; and 5) high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) <40 mg/dl (male adults) and <50 mg/dl (female adults). Prescription drug use was estimated for lipid-modifying agents, anti-hypertensives, and anti-hyperglycemic medications. Results From 1999 and 2000 to 2009 and 2010, the age-adjusted prevalence of MetS (based on biologic thresholds) decreased from 25.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22.5% to 28.6%) to 22.9% (95% CI: 20.3% to 25.5%). During this period, hypertriglyceridemia prevalence decreased (33.5% to 24.3%), as did elevated blood pressure (32.3% to 24.0%). The prevalence of hyperglycemia increased (12.9% to 19.9%), as did elevated waist circumference (45.4% to 56.1%). These trends varied considerably by sex and race/ethnicity. Decreases in elevated blood pressure, suboptimal triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol prevalence have corresponded with increases in anti-hypertensive and lipid-modifying drugs, respectively. Conclusions The increasing prevalence of abdominal obesity, particularly among female adults, highlights the urgency of addressing abdominal obesity as a healthcare priority. The use of therapies for MetS components aligns with favorable trends in their prevalence. © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation.

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