Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California

UC San Diego

UC San Diego Previously Published Works bannerUC San Diego

HIV-1 subtype B-infected MSM may have driven the spread of transmitted resistant strains in France in 2007–12: impact on susceptibility to first-line strategies

Published Web Location
No data is associated with this publication.


Our study describes the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) among 1318 French patients diagnosed at the time of primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) in 2007-12.


HIV-1 resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) were characterized using both the 2009 WHO list of mutations and the French ANRS algorithm. A genotypic susceptibility score was estimated for each first-line recommended ART combination.


Patients were mainly MSM (72.6%). Non-B variants were identified in 33.7% of patients. The proportion of TDR was estimated as 11.7% (95% CI 10.0-13.5). The prevalences of PI-, NRTI-, first-generation NNRTI and etravirine/rilpivirine-associated RAMs were 2.5%, 5.2%, 3.9% and 3.2%, respectively. Single, dual and triple class resistance was found in 9.6%, 1.0% and 1.1% of cases, respectively. Additionally, 5/331 strains isolated in 2010-12 had integrase inhibitor (II)-related RAMs (isolated E157Q mutation in all cases). TDR was more common among MSM than in other groups (12.9% versus 8.6%, P = 0.034), and in case of B versus non-B subtype infections (13.6% versus 7.9%, P = 0.002). The proportions of fully active combinations were ≥99.2%, ≥97.3% and ≥95.3% in cases of PI-, II- and NNRTI-based regimens, respectively. In 2010-12, the proportion of fully active efavirenz-based ART was lower in cases of subtype B versus non-B infection (P = 0.021).


Compared with our previous studies, the proportion of NRTI- and first-generation NNRTI-related TDR has continued to decline in French seroconverters. However, subtype B-infected MSM could drive the spread of resistant HIV strains. Finally, we suggest preferring PI- or II- to NNRTI-based combinations to treat PHI patients.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Item not freely available? Link broken?
Report a problem accessing this item