Skip to main content
Open Access Publications from the University of California


UCLA Previously Published Works bannerUCLA

Hypertension, antihypertensive medications use and risk of age-related macular degeneration in California Teachers Cohort.


Sustained and inadequately controlled hypertension can promote the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) through multiple biologic pathways. Epidemiologic studies of high blood pressure, antihypertensive therapies, and the risk of AMD thus far have been inconclusive. However, few studies evaluated risks according to the use of different classes of antihypertensive drugs or took combinations of use into account. We performed a prospective cohort study by linking the California Teachers Study (CTS) cohort (N = 88 481) to statewide hospital discharge records up to December 31, 2012. History of high blood pressure, regular use of antihypertensive medications, and comprehensive risk factor information was collected via self-administered questionnaires at baseline in 1995-1996, and information on specific classes of antihypertensive drugs was provided by a subsample of CTS participants who completed a follow-up questionnaire in 2000. We identified 1762 female teachers with AMD during 14.8 years of follow-up on average. Applying Cox proportional hazard regression, we estimated increased risks of AMD among women treated for hypertension at baseline (HR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.30); the magnitude of the association increased with longer duration of antihypertensive treatment. In the subsample with more specific information on type of medication use, we estimated a 45% increased risk of AMD among women receiving diuretics as monotherapy compared to women with medications more potent than diuretics (HR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.10, 1.90). In women treated with a combination of antihypertensive drugs, we observed no increased risk of AMD for any individual class of drugs.

Many UC-authored scholarly publications are freely available on this site because of the UC's open access policies. Let us know how this access is important for you.

Main Content
For improved accessibility of PDF content, download the file to your device.
Current View