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Entanglement, Complexity, and Holography


It was found, by studying black holes, that the compatibility of the theory of gravity and the laws of quantum mechanics demands that the universe must act like a hologram. That is, all the information inside a region of the universe should be encoded on a so-called holographic screen of one-lesser dimension. This is termed the holographic principle. In a generic spacetime, such as an expanding universe, holographic screens depend on the choice of an observer, which is consistent with the notion that the observer is part of the system in cosmology. In the first part of this dissertation, we study the observer-dependence of holographic screens. This will help us understand how the fundamental description of the universe depends on the choice of the observer. Furthermore, we study the dynamics of the holographic screens and their geometry in the first part of this dissertation.

An example where the holographic principle is manifest is the AdS-CFT correspondence. This correspondence connects quantum information quantities, like entanglement and complexity, to geometric quantities, like area and volume, respectively. In the second and the third part of this dissertation, we use the AdS-CFT correspondence as a tool to calculate the entanglement entropy and the computational complexity of a quenched CFT state. Studying the time evolution of the entanglement entropy following a quantum quench teaches us how a CFT state thermalizes. On the other hand, studying the time evolution of the computational complexity allows us to check the validity of various recent conjectures involving black holes and complexity.

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