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A computationally efficient exact pseudopotential method. II. Application to the molecular pseudopotential of an excess electron interacting with tetrahydrofuran (THF)

  • Author(s): Smallwood, C J
  • Mejia, C N
  • Glover, W J
  • Larsen, R E
  • Schwartz, Benjamin J
  • et al.

In the preceding paper, we presented an analytic reformulation of the Phillips-Kleinman (PK) pseudopotential theory. In the PK theory, the number of explicitly treated electronic degrees of freedom in a multielectron problem is reduced by forcing the wave functions of the few electrons of interest (the valence electrons) to be orthogonal to those of the remaining electrons (the core electrons); this results in a new Schrodinger equation for the valence electrons in which the effects of the core electrons are treated implicitly via an extra term known as the pseudopotential. Although this pseudopotential must be evaluated iteratively, our reformulation of the theory allows the exact pseudopotential to be found without ever having to evaluate the potential energy operator, providing enormous computational savings. In this paper, we present a detailed computational procedure for implementing our reformulation of the PK theory, and we illustrate our procedure on the largest system for which an exact pseudopotential has been calculated, that of an excess electron interacting with a tetrahyrdrofuran (THF) molecule. We discuss the numerical stability of several approaches to the iterative solution for the pseudopotential, and find that once the core wave functions are available, the full e(-)-THF pseudopotential can be calculated in less than 3 s on a relatively modest single processor. We also comment on how the choice of basis set affects the calculated pseudopotential, and provide a prescription for correcting unphysical behavior that arises at long distances if a localized Gaussian basis set is used. Finally, we discuss the effective e(-)-THF potential in detail, and present a multisite analytic fit of the potential that is suitable for use in molecular simulation. (c) 2006 American Institute of Physics.

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