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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles as Resources for Distributed Electric Power in California

  • Author(s): Kempton, Willett
  • Tomic, Jasna
  • Letendre, Steven
  • Brooks, Alec
  • Lipman, Timothy
  • et al.

Electric-drive vehicles can become and important resource for the California electric utility system, with consequent air pollution, system reliability, and economic benefits. We refer to electric power resources from vehicles as “Vehicle to Grid” power (V2G). The economic value of some forms of V2G appear high, more than enough to offset the initially higher costs of electric-drive vehicles, thus having the potential to accelerate their introduction. To realize this potential, some coordination of vehicle and infrastructure planning will be needed. This study calculates three parameters of electric drive vehicles (EDVs) which are important for their use by the electric system: resources size, availability, and economic potential.

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