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The Effect of Bulk Residual Stress on Milling-Induced Residual Stress and Distortion

  • Author(s): Chighizola, CR;
  • D’Elia, CR;
  • Jonsson, JE;
  • Weber, D;
  • Kirsch, B;
  • Aurich, JC;
  • Linke, BS;
  • Hill, MR
  • et al.

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Background: Distortion arises during machining of metallic parts from two main mechanisms: 1) release of bulk residual stress (BRS) in the pre-form, and 2) permanent deformation induced by cut tools. Interaction between these mechanisms is unexplored. Objective: Assess this interaction using aluminum samples that have a flat surface with variations of BRS, where that surface is subsequently milled, and we observe milling-induced residual stress (MIRS) and distortion. Methods: Plate samples are cut from two kinds of large blocks, one kind stress-relieved by stretching and a second kind solution heat treated, quenched and aged. The BRS field in the plates is known from a recent series of measurements, being small in the stress relieved plates (within ±20 MPa) and large (±100 MPa) in the quenched plates, varying from tension to compression over the surface that is milled. MIRS is measured following milling using hole-drilling. Distortions of thin wafers cut at the milled surfaces are used to elucidate BRS/MIRS interactions. A finite element (FE) model and a strength of materials model are each used to assess consistency between wafer distortion and measured MIRS. Results: Milling in samples with high BRS magnitude changes the directions of MIRS and distortion relative to the milling direction, with the direction of maximum curvature rotating toward or away from the milling direction depending on the sign and direction of BRS. High magnitude BRS was also found to increase the wafer peak arc height, nearly doubling the amount found in low BRS samples. Conclusion: Measured residual stress and observed wafer distortion both show interactions between MIRS and BRS. Stress analysis models show that the differences in measured MIRS are consistent with the differences in observed distortion.

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