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Implementing measurements and optimizing queries for the quantum hidden subgroup problem


This dissertation concerns the Hidden Subgroup Problem (HSP) in quantum computation. We explore certain facets of the problem which, we expect, will lead towards a general framework for understanding such problems. We first present an implementation of an optimal measurement, the Pretty Good Measurement (PGM), for the problem of the hidden subgroup problem over the dihedral group. This is a problem for which no efficient algorithm is known. This problem is relevant to the shortest vector in a lattice problem (SVP) in cryptography. We give a representation theoretic implementation of the PGM, achievable with only abelian transforms. The subset sum problem, an NP-complete problem, is needed in identification of certain subspaces. There are some novel ideas and techniques used in the implementation that make it realizable. This brings into focus how a measurement specified through a POVM (positive operator valued measure) is achievable through a basis change in a particular representation. This has connections to the HSP for other groups. We also study the question of optimal query selection to maximize the probability of subgroup identification. This part of the research complements a well-researched topic of finding optimal measurements in the spirit of state discrimination as applied to the hidden subgroup problem. We find the optimal query, the "character query", over a class of queries that are an equal superposition over the group, for oracles that take values in a finite abelian group. This query outperforms the query used in the "standard method" of the HSP. This approach has connections to other domains of quantum computation. We then extend the query selection idea to the case of multiple queries in the HSP and find examples in which this gives significant gains over the standard method. We consider the problems that the analysis of this more general problem entails, and outline a possible program to be followed. This is a part of continuing research

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