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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Data structures for retrieval on integer grids


A family of data structures is presented for retrieval of the sum of values of points within a half-plane or polygon, given that the points are on integer coordinates in the plane. Fredman has shown that the problem has a lower bound of Ω(N^2/3) for intermixed updates and retrievals. Willard has shown an upper bound of O(N^2log6^4) for the case where the points are not restricted to integer coordinates.

We have developed families of related data structures for retrievals of half-planes or polygons. One of the data structures permits intermixed updates and half-plane retrievals in O(N^2/3log N) time, where N is the size of the grid.

We use a technique we call "Rotation" to permit a better match of a portion of the data structure to the particular problem. Rotations appear to be an effective method for trading-off storage redundancy against retrieval time for certain classes of problems.

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