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Comparison of animal Manures and Chemical Fertilizers on Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) cultivation

  • Author(s): Amiri, Mohammad E
  • et al.
Abstract

Application of cow manure (mixture of bedding straw+manure = Mn) plus P+N fertilizers increased spice yield (stigma dry weight) of saffron (Crocus sativus L). Besides, Mn increased soil organic carbon (OC) level, concentrations of soil K, Mg, Ca, and N-NH4+, and soil CEC. On the other hand, saffron plant was treated with N as (urea) (CO(NH2)2, 46% N) at 50 kg ha-1; P as super phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2, 46% P2O5) at 40 kg ha-1 alone or combination with cow deep litter manure (20 t ha-1). The highest yield (0.45 g m-2) was obtained with combination of Mn, P and N, while, the lowest (0.24 g m-2) with control. The maximum flower fresh weight (0.99 g), with the longest stigma (30 mm) were obtained in the N+P+Mn treatment, and the lowest (0.50 g) with control, respectively. The N only application increased vegetative growth (highest leaf area index = LAI), but no significant on yield. The highest LAI (2.8) was recorded in the N-only treatment, but the lowest (1.3) in the control, respectively. The highest corm multiplications rate (5.7 new corms yr-1) and the lowest (2.5 new corms yr-1) were recorded in the Mn treatment and the control, respectively. Leaf mineral concentrations (%DW) increased by applications of N+P+Mn, but there was no significant (P = 0.05) difference in some mineral leaf concentrations.

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