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Longitudinal Circulating Tumor DNA Analysis in Blood and Saliva for Prediction of Response to Osimertinib and Disease Progression in EGFR-Mutant Lung Adenocarcinoma


Background: We assessed whether serial ctDNA monitoring of plasma and saliva predicts response and resistance to osimertinib in EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma. Three ctDNA technologies-blood-based droplet-digital PCR (ddPCR), next-generation sequencing (NGS), and saliva-based EFIRM liquid biopsy (eLB)-were employed to investigate their complementary roles. Methods: Plasma and saliva samples were collected from patients enrolled in a prospective clinical trial of osimertinib and local ablative therapy upon progression (NCT02759835). Plasma was analyzed by ddPCR and NGS. Saliva was analyzed by eLB. Results: A total of 25 patients were included. We analyzed 534 samples by ddPCR (n = 25), 256 samples by NGS (n = 24) and 371 samples by eLB (n = 22). Among 20 patients who progressed, ctDNA progression predated RECIST 1.1 progression by a median of 118 days (range: 61-272 days) in 11 (55%) patients. Of nine patients without ctDNA progression by ddPCR, two patients had an increase in mutant EGFR by eLB and two patients were found to have ctDNA progression by NGS. Levels of ctDNA measured by ddPCR and NGS at early time points, but not volumetric tumor burden, were associated with PFS. EGFR/ERBB2/MET/KRAS amplifications, EGFR C797S, PIK3CA E545K, PTEN V9del, and CTNNB1 S45P were key resistance mechanisms identified by NGS. Conclusion: Serial assessment of ctDNA in plasma and saliva predicts response and resistance to osimertinib, with each assay having supplementary roles.

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