Full-scale Lateral Load Testing of Pier 3 at the Port of Long Beach
Before the release of the Seismic Design Criteria for California Marine Oil Terminals (Ferrito et. al, 1999), the seismic design of piers and wharves was a nonuniform procedure. Design practices of the past typically underestimated earthquake intensities, a fact that has become clear after seismic events such as the Loma Prieta (1989) and Northridge (1994) earthquakes. Based on the damage to port facilities observed in such events, the Marine Facilities Division (MFD) of the California State Lands Commission, with funding through FEMA and the California Office of Emergency Services, is developing specific regulations for the seismic performance of marine oil terminals in California. The goals of the criteria established by Ferrito et al., (1999) are to (i) ensure safe and pollution-free transfer of petroleum products between ship and land-based facilities, (ii) ensure the best achievable protection of public health, safety, and the environment, and (iii) maximize utilization of limited resources. A major component in the effort to realize these goals is the development and implementation of standardized design criteria, hence, the Seismic Design Criteria for California Marine Oil Terminals.