Incomplete expansion of Palmaz-Schatz stents despite high-pressure implantation technique: impact on target lesion revascularization.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1159/000006888
Improved expansion of stents using high-pressure implantation technique with subsequent antiplatelet therapy has improved patient outcome regarding the incidence of subacute stent thrombosis, bleeding complications and restenosis. Whether high-pressure implantation per se guarantees adequate stent expansion remains unclear. The aim of the study was to determine (1) stent expansion after high-pressure implantation technique and (2) whether stent expansion influences rate of target lesion revascularization within 6 months of follow-up. One hundred Palmaz-Schatz stents were implanted in 98 lesions (91 native vessels, 7 graft vessels) of 94 patients using high-pressure implantation technique (balloon pressure 12-20 atm). Stent expansion was investigated using intravascular ultrasound imaging (IVUS). Clinical follow-up of the patients was performed for 6 months. After implantation, stent/mean reference ratio was 0.81 +/- 0.16. Noncompliant balloons used for implantation were chosen by angiographic criteria. Mean balloon/reference ratio was 1.08 +/- 0.22; therefore balloons were not undersized. Additional balloon dilataion using higher pressures and/or larger balloons based on IVUS criteria and subsequent IVUS measurements was performed in 52 patients (55%); in these patients, stent expansion improved from 79 +/- 16 to 91 +/- 15% (mean +/- SD) of average reference areas (p < 0.002). Within the 6 months' clinical follow-up, target lesion revascularization was performed in 19 patients (20%). The only prognostic factors for the development of in-stent restenosis requiring target lesion revascularization were the vessel size (p < 0.05) and the extent of plaque distal to the stents (p < 0.05). Implantation of Palmaz-Schatz stents using high-pressure technique does not guarantee adequate stent expansion. Additional dilatation with higher pressures and/or larger balloons improves stent expansion. The size of the stented vessel and the extent of plaque at the distal stent end (residual outflow stenosis) but not the degree of stent expansion were predictors for target lesion revascularization within 6 months' follow-up.