Modern Problems in Mathematical Signal Processing: Quantized Compressed Sensing and Randomized Neural Networks
We study two problems from mathematical signal processing. First, we consider problem of approximately recovering signals on a smooth, compact manifold from one-bit linear measurements drawn from either a Gaussian ensemble, partial circulant ensemble, or bounded orthonormal ensemble and quantized using \(\Sigma\Delta\) or distributed noise-shaping schemes. We construct a convex optimization algorithm for signal recovery that, given a Geometric Multi-Resolution Analysis approximation of the manifold, guarantees signal recovery with high probability. We prove an upper bound on the recovery error which outperforms prior works that use memoryless scalar quantization, requires a simpler analysis, and extends the class of measurements beyond Gaussians.
Second, we consider the problem of approximation continuous functions on compact domains using neural networks. The learning speed of feed-forward neural networks is notoriously slow and has presented a bottleneck in deep learning applications for several decades. For instance, gradient-based learning algorithms, which are used extensively to train neural networks, tend to work slowly when all of the network parameters must be iteratively tuned. To counter this, both researchers and practitioners have tried introducing randomness to reduce the learning requirement. Based on the original construction of B.~Igelnik and Y.H.~Pao, single layer neural-networks with random input-to-hidden layer weights and biases have seen success in practice, but the necessary theoretical justification is lacking. We begin to fill this theoretical gap by providing a (corrected) rigorous proof that the Igelnik and Pao construction is a universal approximator for continuous functions on compact domains, with \(\varepsilon\)-error convergence rate inversely proportional to the number of network nodes; we then extend this result to the non-asymptotic setting using a concentration inequality for Monte-Carlo integral approximations. We further adapt this randomized neural network architecture to approximate functions on smooth, compact submanifolds of Euclidean space, providing theoretical guarantees in both the asymptotic and non-asymptotic cases.