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Comparison of Outcomes between Endoscopic and Transcleral Cyclophotocoagulation


Importance: Traditionally cyclophotocoagulation has been reserved as a treatment of last resort for eyes with advanced stage glaucoma, but increasingly it is offered to eyes with less severe disease. Endoscopic approaches in particular are utilized in increasing numbers of patients despite only a small number of publications on its results. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of endoscopic and transcleral cyclophotocoagulation (ECP and TCP) procedures in eyes with refractory glaucomas. Design, Setting, and Participants: A chart review was performed on consecutive patients who underwent ECP and TCP at a tertiary ophthalmology care center between January 2000 and December 2010. Cases with fewer than 3 months of follow-up or that had concurrent pressure reducing procedures were excluded. The main outcome measures examined were intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), additional glaucoma procedure required, and complications. Main Outcomes and Measures: Forty-two eyes (42 patients) that underwent ECP and forty-four eyes (44 patients) that underwent TCP were identified. The TCP group had a statistically higher mean age (71.2 ± 16.7 vs. 58.1 ± 22.9 years, respectively), larger proportion of neovascular glaucoma (40.9% vs. 16.7%), worse initial BCVA (logMAR 2.86 vs. 1.81), and higher preoperative IOP (45.3 vs. 26.6 mmHg) than the ECP group. At 12 months follow-up, the mean IOP difference between groups was not statistically significant, although the change in IOP from baseline to 12 months was greater for the TCP group (p = 0.006). The rates of progression to no light perception (NLP) and phthisis bulbi were significantly higher amongst TCP eyes than ECP eyes (27.2% vs. 4.8%, p = 0.017, and 20.5% vs. 0%, p = 0.003, respectively). Of these eyes that progressed, a majority had neovascular glaucoma (NVG). Corneal decompensation was the most frequent complication following ECP (11.9%). Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with preoperative BCVA of 20/400 or better, overall complication rates (cystoid macular edema, exudative retinal detachment, inflammation, cornea decompensation) were higher after ECP than with TCP. In refractory glaucomas in a real world setting (not a trial), TCP was more frequently used in ischemic eyes. TCP was associated with a higher rate of progression to phthisis bulbi and loss of light perception than ECP. However, ECP was associated with a clinically significant rate of corneal decompensation. These outcomes likely were related to the severity of underlying ocular diseases found in these eyes.

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