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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Meeting the New CARB ZEV Mandate Requirements: Grid-Connected Hybrids and City EVs


In January 2001, the California Air Resources Board adopted significant modifications to the ZEV Mandate. These changes affect the options available to large auto companies marketing cars in California that must meet the requirements of the Mandate starting in 2003. In the new regulations, up to 50% (2% of sales) of the ZEV requirement (4% of sales) may be met with grid-connected, plug-in hybrid vehicles having a 20-mile or longer all-electric range. In addition, city EVs that may or may not be freeway worthy are designated for full ZEV credit and can be used to meet the 4% ZEV requirement. In the case of both types of vehicles, there is much less information available concerning their design, cost, and marketing than for full function electric vehicles (FFEVs) – which have in the past been the focus of meeting the ZEV Mandate. This two-day workshop will consider in-depth how the inclusion of the grid connected hybrids and city EVs in the Mandate may affect how it will be met in 2003-2006. In addition, each of the new technology options will be reviewed in terms of vehicle design, utility, cost, and marketing.

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