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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Simulation methods and validation criteria for modeling cardiac ventricular electrophysiology

  • Author(s): Krishnamoorthi, S
  • Perotti, LE
  • Borgstrom, NP
  • Ajijola, OA
  • Frid, A
  • Ponnaluri, AV
  • Weiss, JN
  • Qu, Z
  • Klug, WS
  • Enni, DB
  • Garfinkel, A
  • et al.

© 2014 Krishnamoorthi et al. We describe a sequence of methods to produce a partial differential equation model of the electrical activation of the ventricles. In our framework, we incorporate the anatomy and cardiac microstructure obtained from magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging of a New Zealand White rabbit, the Purkinje structure and the Purkinje-muscle junctions, and an electrophysiologically accurate model of the ventricular myocytes and tissue, which includes transmural and apex-to-base gradients of action potential characteristics. We solve the electrophysiology governing equations using the finite element method and compute both a 6-lead precordial electrocardiogram (ECG) and the activation wavefronts over time. We are particularly concerned with the validation of the various methods used in our model, in this regard, propose a series of validation criteria that we consider essential. These include producing a physiologically accurate ECG, a correct ventricular activation sequence, and the inducibility of ventricular fibrillation. Among other components, we conclude that a Purkinje geometry with a high density of Purkinje muscle junctions covering the right and left ventricular endocardial surfaces as well as transmural and apex-to-base gradients in action potential characteristics are necessary to produce ECGs and time activation plots that agree with physiological observations.

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