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Current Concepts, Opportunities, and Challenges of Gut Microbiome-Based Personalized Medicine in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NALFD) is now a leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, in part, as a consequence of rapidly rising levels of obesity and metabolic syndrome and is a major risk factor for cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver-related mortality. From NAFLD stems a myriad of clinical challenges related to both diagnosis and management. A growing body of evidence suggests an intricate linkage between the gut microbiome and the pathogenesis of NAFLD. We highlight how our current knowledge of the gut-liver axis in NAFLD may be leveraged to develop gut microbiome-based personalized approaches for disease management, including its use as a non-invasive biomarker for diagnosis and staging, as a target for therapeutic modulation, and as a marker of drug response. We will also discuss current limitations of these microbiome-based approaches. Ultimately, a better understanding of microbiota-host interactions in NAFLD will inform the development of novel preventative strategies and precise therapeutic targets.

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