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Open Access Publications from the University of California

Integration of High-Resolution Radiation Detector for Hybrid Microchip Electrophoresis.

  • Author(s): Jones, Jason
  • Ha, Noel S
  • Barajas, Alec G
  • Chatziioannou, Arion F
  • van Dam, R Michael
  • et al.

For decades, there has been immense progress in miniaturizing analytical methods based on electrophoresis to improve sensitivity and to reduce sample volumes, separation times, and/or equipment cost and space requirements, in applications ranging from analysis of biological samples to environmental analysis to forensics. In the field of radiochemistry, where radiation-shielded laboratory space is limited, there has been great interest in harnessing the compactness, high efficiency, and speed of microfluidics to synthesize short-lived radiolabeled compounds. We recently proposed that analysis of these compounds could also benefit from miniaturization and have been investigating capillary electrophoresis (CE) and hybrid microchip electrophoresis (hybrid-MCE) as alternatives to the typically used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We previously showed separation of the positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging tracer 3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine (FLT) from its impurities in a hybrid-MCE device with UV detection, with similar separation performance to HPLC, but with improved speed and lower sample volumes. In this paper, we have developed an integrated radiation detector to enable measurement of the emitted radiation from radiolabeled compounds. Though conventional radiation detectors have been incorporated into CE systems in the past, these approaches cannot be readily integrated into a compact hybrid-MCE device. We instead employed a solid-state avalanche photodiode (APD)-based detector for real-time, high-sensitivity β particle detection. The integrated system can reliably separate [18F]FLT from its impurities and perform chemical identification via coinjection with nonradioactive reference standard. This system can quantitate samples with radioactivity concentrations as low as 114 MBq/mL (3.1 mCi/mL), which is sufficient for analysis of radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals.

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