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Anti-inflammatory cytokine production : regulation of DUBA expression proves as a new link between interleukin 1 receptor signaling and toll- like receptor 9


The interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1R) and the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are highly homologous innate immune receptors that provide the first line of defense against infection. We show that IL-1R type I (IL-1RI) is essential for TLR9-dependent activation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) and for production of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and type I interferon (IFN). Noncanonical K63-linked ubiquitination of TRAF3, which is essential for type I IFN and IL-10 production, was impaired in Il1r1-/- CD11 c+ dendritic cells. In contrast, degradative ubiquitination of TRAF3 was not affected in the absence of IL-1R1 signaling. Deubiquitinating enzyme A (DUBA), which selectively cleaves K63-linked ubiquitin chains from TRAF3, was up- regulated in the absence of IL-1R1 signaling. DUBA short interference RNA augmented the TLR9-dependent type I IFN response. Mice deficient in IL-1RI signaling showed reduced expression of IL-10 and type I IFN and increased susceptibility to dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis and failed to mount a protective type I IFN response after TLR9 ligand (CpG) administration. Our data identifies a new molecular pathway by which IL-1 signaling attenuates TLR9-mediated proinflammatory responses

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