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Impact of solid organ transplant status on outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection.
Published Web Locationhttps://doi.org/10.1111/tid.13853
BackgroundThe COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. However, it remains unclear whether the risk factor for SOT patients is the immunosuppression inherent to transplantation versus patient comorbidities.
MethodsWe reviewed outcomes in a cohort of SOT (n = 129) and non-SOT (NSOT) patients (n = 708) admitted to the University of California, Los Angeles for COVID-19 infection. Data analyses utilized multivariate logistic regression to evaluate the impact of patient demographics, comorbidities, and transplant status on outcomes. SOT patients were analyzed by kidney SOT (KSOT) versus nonkidney SOT (NKSOT) groups.
ResultsSOT and NSOT patients with COVID-19 infection differed in terms of patient age, ethnicity, and comorbidities. NKSOT patients were the most likely to experience death, with a mortality rate of 16.2% compared with 1.8% for KSOT and 8.3% for NSOT patients (p = .013). Multivariable analysis of hospitalized patients revealed that patient age (odds ratio [OR] 2.79, p = .001) and neurologic condition (OR 2.66, p < .001) were significantly associated with mortality. Analysis of ICU patients revealed a 2.98-fold increased odds of death in NKSOT compared with NSOT patients (p = .013).
ConclusionsThis study demonstrates the importance of transplant status in predicting adverse clinical outcomes in patients hospitalized or admitted to the ICU with COVID-19, especially for NKSOT patients. Transplant status and comorbidities, including age, could be used to risk stratify patients with COVID-19. This data suggests that immunosuppression contributes to COVID-19 disease severity and mortality and may have implications for managing immunosuppression, especially for critically ill patients admitted to the ICU.
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