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Aminoguanidine inhibits aortic hydrogen peroxide production, VSMC NOX activity and hypercontractility in diabetic mice


Abstract Background Dysfunctionally uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is involved in producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the diabetic endothelium. The present study investigated whether anti-diabetes drug Aminoguanidine (AG) has any effect on eNOS function and vascular oxidant stress. Methods and Results Blood glucose levels were increased to 452.0 ± 15.1 mg/dl in STZ-treated male C57BL/6J mice (148.4 ± 3.2 mg/dl in untreated controls). Aortic productions of NO• and O2 •- were measured specifically and sensitively using electron spin resonance. Diabetic mice had a marked increase in aortic O2 •- production. Aortic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production was also increased in diabetic aortas and significantly attenuated by AG. AG however had only a marginal effect in reducing aortic O2 •- production, which corresponded to a minimal effect in improving aortic nitric oxide (NO•) bioavailability. The endothelium-dependent vasodilatation however was modestly but significantly improved by AG, likely consequent to AG-induced reduction in hyper-contractility. NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX)-dependent O2 •- production was completely attenuated by AG in endothelium-denuded diabetic aortas. Conclusion In summary, despite that AG is not an effective eNOS recoupling agent presumably consequent to its ineffectiveness in preventing endothelial NOX activation, it is inhibitory of aortic H2O2 production, VSMC NOX activity, and hypercontractility in diabetes.

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