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The physical origin of dark energy constraints from rubin observatory and CMB-S4 lensing tomography

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We seek to clarify the origin of constraints on the dark energy equation of state parameter from CMB lensing tomography, that is the combination of galaxy clustering and the cross-correlation of galaxies with CMB lensing in a number of redshift bins. We focus on the analytic understanding of the origin of the constraints. Dark energy information in these data arises from the influence of three primary relationships: distance as a function of redshift (geometry), the amplitude of the power spectrum as a function of redshift (growth), and the power spectrum as a function of wavenumber (shape). We find that the effects from geometry and growth play a significant role and partially cancel each other out, while the shape effect is unimportant. We also show that Dark Energy Task Force figure of merit forecasts from the combination of LSST galaxies and CMB-S4 lensing are comparable to the forecasts from cosmic shear in the absence of the CMB lensing map, thus providing an important independent check. Compared to the forecasts with the LSST galaxies alone, combining CMB lensing and LSST clustering information increases the FoM by roughly a factor of 3-4 in the optimistic scenario where systematics are fully under control. We caution that achieving these forecasts will likely require a full analysis of higher-order biasing, photometric redshift uncertainties, and stringent control of other systematic limitations, which are outside the scope of this work, whose primary purpose is to elucidate the physical origin of the constraints.

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