Skip to main content
eScholarship
Open Access Publications from the University of California

High Power Millimeter-Wave Signal Generation in Advanced SiGe and CMOS Process

  • Author(s): Lin, Hsin-Chang
  • Advisor(s): Rebeiz, Gabriel M.
  • et al.
Abstract

This thesis first presents a fully-integrated 16-way power combining amplifier for 67-92 GHz applications in an advanced 90 nm silicon germanium (SiGe) HBT technology. The 16-way amplifier is implemented using 3-stage common-emitter single-ended power amplifiers (PAs) as building blocks, and reactive l/4 impedance transformation networks are used for power combining. The 3-stage single PA breakout has a small-signal gain of 22 dB at 74 GHz, and saturation output power (Psat ) of 14.3-16.4 dBm at 68-99 GHz. The power-combining PA achieves a small-signal gain of 19.3 dB at 74 GHz, and Psat of 25.3-27.3 dBm at 68-88 GHz with a maximum power added efficiency (PAE) of 12.4%. The 16-way amplifier occupies 6.48 mm2 (including pads) and consumes a maximum current of 2.1 A from a 1.8 V supply. To our knowledge, this is the highest power silicon-based E-band amplifier to-date.

Next, a fully-integrated 8-way power combining amplifier for 110-134 GHz applications in an advanced 90 nm silicon germanium (SiGe) HBT technology is presented. The 8-way amplifier is implemented using 4-stage common-emitter single-ended power amplifiers (PAs) as building blocks, and reactive l/4 impedance transformation networks are used for power combining. The single-ended PA breakout has a small-signal gain of 20 dB at 116 GHz, and saturation output power (Psat ) of 12.5-13.8 dBm at 114-130 GHz. The 8-way power combining PA achieves a small-signal gain of 15 dB at 116 GHz, and Psat of 20-20.8 dBm at 114-126 GHz with a power added efficiency (PAE) of 7.6-6.3%. The 8-way amplifier occupies 4.95 mm2 (including pads) and consumes a maximum current of 980 mA from a 1.6 V supply. To our knowledge, this is the highest power silicon-based D-band amplifier to-date.

Next, a fully-integrated 4-way power combining multiplier for 200-230 GHz applications in an advanced 90 nm silicon germanium (SiGe) HBT technology is presented. The 4-way combined multiplier is implemented using active balanced transistor pairs with device size of 460.1 μm2 with 4-stage pseudo-differential driver power amplifiers (PAs) as building blocks, and reactive l/4 impedance transformation networks are used for power combining. The 4-stage single-ended PA breakout has a peak small-signal gain of 19.3 dB at 110 GHz, and a saturation output power (Psat ) of 14.5 dBm at 116 GHz. The multiplier breakout results in a peak output power of 1.8 dBm at 245 GHz with a peak conversion gain of -15.5 dB. The power-combining multiplier achieves a peak output power of 8 dBm at 215 GHz with an associate conversion gain of -4.7 dB and the peak conversion gain is 1.6 dB at 215 GHz. The 4-way combined multiplier occupies 3.63 mm2 (including pads) and consumes a maximum current of 1.2 A from a 1.8 V supply. To our knowledge, this work generates the highest power among the silicon-based technology to-date at frequency above 200 GHz.

Finally, high-power stand-alone millimeter-wave frequency multipliers in advanced SiGe and CMOS process are presented. First, a 135-160 GHz active doubler has been developed in 45 nm CMOS SOI. Careful optimization is done on the transistor size, layout and transmission-lines in order to result in the best performance. The doubler shows a measured peak power of +3.5 dBm at 150 GHz and > 2 dBm at 140-160 GHz, at a bias voltage of 1 V. These were achieved at an input power of 7-8 dBm at 70-80 GHz, resulting in a conversion gain of -4 to -5 dBm. To our knowledge, these are the best results achieved for a D-band doubler in SiGe or CMOS, and shows that advanced CMOS technology can be used to generate wideband power above 100 GHz. Second, a wideband 90 nm SiGe BiCMOS frequency multiplier at 200-245 GHz is presented. The balanced multiplier results in a low first harmonic component, and uses a reflector at the base nodes to reflect the second harmonics to transistors for improved efficiency. The measured output power is > -2 dBm at 200-245 GHz with a peak value of +2 dBm at 224-228 GHz and a conversion gain of -15 dB. To the author’s knowledge, this is the highest power wideband doubler at 200-250 GHz.

Main Content
Current View